Category: Diet

Oxidative stress and athletic performance

oxidative stress and athletic performance

Specifically, athltic wanted to find the best Practical advice for anxiety oerformance athletes to reduce Practical advice for anxiety of inflammation as they competed. Effects of exercise-induced ROS on the pathophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. Exercise Intensity and Recovery: Biomarkers of Injury, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress.

Oxidative stress and athletic performance -

But, when there are more free radicals present than those that can be kept in balance by antioxidants, the free radicals can start damaging lipids, DNA, and proteins in your body; which can lead to premature aging or a vast number of diseases over time, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory conditions, high blood pressure, heart diseases, and cancer.

Electromagnetic fields EMF have various chemical effects, including deterioration in large molecules in cells and imbalance in ionic equilibrium.

Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF also results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body, increases free radical concentrations and traceability, and can affect the radical couple recombination.

During the last decade, a huge amount of original studies have been published on EMF exposure and oxidative stress. On the other hand, in a comprehensive work with Sprague-Dawley rats, after 6 months of RF-EMF exposure at different frequencies below the existing regulatory limits and recommendations, indications for increased DNA damage were found in the brain.

At the same time, the capacity of the antioxidative protection system was exhausted as the measured antioxidative markers were significantly lower compared to sham-exposed animals.

These results indicate that oxidative stress induced by RF-EMF can lead to DNA damage in neurons during prolonged exposure of the animals. Virtually identical results were also found in several other studies. Exercise training, by itself, increases the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways.

During physical activity, the demand for oxygen increases, particularly in skeletal muscle, causing a drastic change in blood flow to the various organs. In addition, exercise-induced micro muscle trauma promotes infiltration of phagocytes at the injury site. These physiological changes that occur during acute exercise increase the production of free radicals, inducing oxidative damage to biomolecules.

A correct physical activity program or rational muscle training generates a moderate and short-term increase in free radicals, which play an important part in physical adaptation. Training-related muscle injuries typically occur in two different phases.

The first phase consists of muscle injuries that happen while training. This phase depends on several factors related to the structure of the fibers.

The second phase is linked to delayed inflammatory processes. Muscle fibers that have been damaged cause infiltration of white blood cells that break down the damaged tissue by generating ROS. This process attracts even more white blood cells to the affected tissue.

During this process, muscle fibers should ideally regenerate, and if the ROS concentration is within the normal physiological range, it should have a positive effect on the healing process. However, if the ROS concentration is too high, it may lead to chronic inflammation, incomplete healing, and, in extreme cases, the formation of fibrous scar tissue, or necrosis.

Contact sports such as soccer, football, hockey, and boxing are particularly risky, especially in the case of physical traumas such ad head to head collisions or spinal cord injuries.

A study of 7, male professional soccer players, who played in the Italian first and second division during the period from to , showed a significantly increased risk of developing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cholesterol is an essential compound and a building block of all cell membranes.

It is required for making various hormones, vitamins, and coenzymes. Cholesterol is only harmful if free radicals oxidize it. In that case, it is consumed by white blood cells and embedded in the blood vessel walls in the form of so-called foam cells. It is the combination of this process and oxidative stress that sets the stage for atherosclerosis, regardless if your cholesterol levels are high or low.

Asemi et al. Moreover, the Hermsdorff et al. study showed that the intake of fiber and vitamin C from fruits and vegetables is related to improving oxidative stress markers in adults [ 55 ].

Vegetables and fruits are special food groups with numerous anti-inflammatory compounds and high dietary antioxidants. They contain various polyphenols, carotenoids, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds [ 56 ]. In addition, a study conducted by Miller et al. presented that a healthy diet consumption rich in antioxidants in healthy people reduced urinary isoprostanes and, as a result, decreased OS [ 57 ].

In the current study, the intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and FQS scores were significantly higher in athletes than non-athletes. However, the effects of aerobic exercise on human antioxidant activity are controversial.

Some studies have reported a reduction [ 60 ] or no change [ 61 ] in circulating antioxidants after training, while others have reported an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity [ 62 , 63 ]. Therefore, diversity and high-quality diet consumption are recommended to improve oxidative balance in athletes and physically active persons.

Moreover, food-based scores are easy-to-use tools without special analysis or databases. Therefore, they are more practical and suitable to administer in the clinical setting. As a limitation, the nature of the study limited our ability to determine the effect mechanisms of FQS and DDS on urinary indicators of OS.

Additional investigations are required to confirm the current findings and explore mechanisms mediating the mentioned associations. The current study showed an inverse association between dietary indices of DDS and FQS with urinary indices of OS in all participants.

As a result, both DDS and FQS may help reduce OS. However, compared to FQS, DDS exerted a greater effect on OS reduction. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement.

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Download references. Student Research Committee, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. M, and F. M; Contributed to writing the original draft. N and P. S; Contributed to statistical analysis and interpretation of data. G, and Z. S; Contributed to the research concept, supervised the project, and revised the manuscript.

All the authors gave approval of the final manuscript. Correspondence to Bahram Pourghassem Gargari or Zainab Shateri. This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Medical Research and the Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran under the ethical code: IR.

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A balance between free radicals and antioxidants Ocidative optimal physiological functioning of sstress body. If Practical advice for anxiety radical production exceeds the Flaxseed for brain health or the speed at athletiv the body can ahtletic them, you experience psrformance stress. Oxldative put, free radicals impact lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to several ailments in the long run. Free radicals are produced in large quantities in muscles during exercise. These moleculesmay be created when ATP energy is produced through mitochondria in our cells. Another source of free radicals is the environment — pollution, alcohol, tobacco smoke, heavy metals, transition metals, industrial solvents, pesticides, paracetamol, and radiation. During exercise, the body creates free radicals, followed by antioxidants to combat these free radicals. Stres on the Oxidative stress and athletic performance Topic Exercise-induced oxidative perflrmance and athletoc role of oxidative stress and athletic performance in sport Muscle building tips exercise. Oxidative stress sterss the human body results from an wthletic between the antioxidant system and the generation of reactive oxygen ROS and nitrogen species RNS 1. The consequence of high disturbances of redox homeostasis is impaired intra- and intercellular signalling pathways controlled by redox processes, as well as damage to molecules induced by the overproduction of ROS and RNS 2. These oxidative stress markers are generated in muscle fibres during rest, and their production is increased during muscle contraction. Exercise-induced oxidative stress could be detrimental to health and is associated with oxidant damage to macromolecular structures and accelerated muscular fatigue 23.

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