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Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise

Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise

Dxercise SS, et al. Effect of intradialytic suar home-based aerobic exercise exerciae on Green tea weight loss function and vascular parameters in hemodialysis patients: Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise randomized pilot study. A systematic review with meta-analysis. Activities like tai chi and yoga combine flexibility, balance, and resistance activities. Sheri R. Diabetes diet: Create your healthy-eating plan Diabetes foods: Can I substitute honey for sugar? As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise -

Español Spanish. Minus Related Pages. Being More Active Is Better for You If you have diabetes , being active makes your body more sensitive to insulin the hormone that allows cells in your body to use blood sugar for energy , which helps manage your diabetes. Finding an activity you enjoy and having a partner helps you stick with it.

You can start by walking for 10 minutes after dinner, gradually building up to 30 minutes most days. Check your blood sugar before and after you take a walk.

If you stick with it over time weeks, months, years , you will see more obvious results. It can be lots of fun if you find an activity you enjoy. Try doing a new activity a couple of times before deciding whether to continue with that activity.

Try something else. The costs for gym memberships and fitness classes can add up. However, walking during lunch or after dinner, dancing to your favorite tunes at home, or working out to online videos are free and can be done at times that are more convenient for you.

Find ways to squeeze physical activity into your day-to-day life. For example, take the stairs instead of the elevator, play outside with your children, get up and move during TV commercials.

Try to fit in at least 20 to 25 minutes of activity every day, which will help it become a habit. Low-impact activities like pool walking and swimming are examples. Talk to your health care provider about activities that you can do to get started.

Start slowly, and work your way up to your desired level. Discuss other ideas with your health care provider. Special Considerations for People With Diabetes Protect your feet by wearing cotton socks with well-fitting athletic shoes.

Video: Being Active Physical Activity Basics Physical Activity and Health Measuring Physical Activity Intensity More People Walk to Better Health Exercise and Type 1 Diabetes. Last Reviewed: November 3, Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate.

home Diabetes Home. To receive updates about diabetes topics, enter your email address: Email Address. The exercise regimens developed by the American College of Sports Medicine [ 42 , 43 ] served as the foundation.

The exercise interventions groups IG were aerobic IG, resistance IG, and combined IG were used in this study. The total time spent on each session was used to equalize the exercise protocols.

The heart rate monitor that we used was the Polar H7 heart rate monitor Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland , which contains a single flexible plastic sensor 2.

The Polar H7 heart rate receiver has a sample rate of Hz and has high agreement with ECG measurements during various exercise modalities [ 44 ]. Calculation of the maximum heart rate was based on Gellish et al.

Due to the wide age range of participants in an adult fitness program, this formula is recommended for both men and women. The only resistance group that includes: standing plantar flexion, triceps pulley, neutral rowing, squatting, dumbbell supine, knee extension with ankle weights, dumbbell development, dumbbell curl and trunk flexion and vertical bench press [ 46 ].

The circuit type of resistance training RT was used with intervals of 15—20 s between exercises, with 3 sets of 10 repetitions with a rest of 1—2 min between sets. The values used were 11 to 13, which represented a moderate effort.

The load was then increased with the goal of maintaining constant value of perceived exertion. The combined group participated in 30 min of resistance training and 30 min of aerobic exercise at the same intensity, progression, and method in each session.

The only difference for aerobic exercise was that it was cut down to 30 min rather than With the exception of the neutral rowing, dumbbell supine, dumbbell development and standing plantar flexion, these participants performed their resistance training with the same intensity and protocol as the afore-mentioned individual groups, reducing it to six exercises instead of ten and two sets instead of three.

All participants were asked not to do any moderate or vigorous physical activity outside of the intervention. During the first week of the intervention and after the 12th week, a three-day food diary was obtained.

Regarding to control methods for menstrual cycle of pre-menopausal women between testing periods, we used the calendar-based counting method combined with individualized training for the first three days was a control method for menstrual cycle of pre-menopausal women during the exercise intervention period.

During menstrual cycle, it can be difficult to follow an exercise routine because progesterone and estrogen are at their lowest, which can result in feeling less energy and motivation.

With stamina and endurance levels diminished, may not feel up to fast-paced, cardio activities or workouts that rely on lifting heavy weights [ 48 ]. However, that does not mean that exercising is not advised during this time.

Consider low intensity cardio, and with light weight strength training. Even walking for their period can be beneficial. But need to exclude schedule of a harder time exercising during hot and humid weather [ 49 , 50 ]. Shapiro-Wilk test was employed to assess the normality of the distributions for all variables that were observed.

The Shiapro-Wilk test is a test of normality that assesses whether a sample is likely to originate from a normal distribution [ 51 ]. Data analyses were carried out using the analyses performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows version Descriptive statistics, such as mean and standard deviations and inferential statistics: the Paired sample T-test was used to describe the pre and post-tests of study variables and one way, ANCOVA, was employed to identify the potential intervention exercise group by comparing means between groups and to control covariate variables of diet, gender and age.

This study included forty participants 29 male, 11 women , all of whom completed the exercise program. It was observed that the participants were challenged to finish a workout session without resting for a few minutes at the beginning of the intervention.

However, most participants were able to finish the exercise intervention after the sixth week. The study variables did not differ significantly prior to the intervention, as shown in Table 1.

Additionally, normality test of data Shapiro-Wilk Test across four groups revealed that the data was normally distributed Table 1. Mean of age in strength IG Mean of fasting blood glucose level in strength IG Mean of body fat percentage in strength IG In this instance, it appears that the randomization of the samples into four groups has no significant effect on the intervention and the data was normally distributed.

Paired sample t-test of percent body fat in aerobic, strength, combined and control group. Key : Figures 2 , 3 and 4 have presented changes of BMI, fasting blood glucose and BF before and after 12 week interventions through paired sample t-test in aerobic, strength, combined and control groups; MD: mean difference, R 2 : effect size eta squared.

The primary objective of this article is to determine the most effective intervention modalities to enhance the study variables. An ANCOVA with Post hoc test was used to determine which training intervention had the greatest impact. In addition, multiple group pairwise comparisons of the post hoc test of FBG, SBP, DBP, BMI, and BFP mean differences between the three interventions and a control groups are displayed in Table 2.

All three intervention training groups have shown a reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose and body composition, however, the most effective intervention training was combined resistance plus aerobic training.

The combined IG vs. Generally, combined training more significantly reduced BMI, FBG, SBP, DBP and BFP compared to the control group. However, diet has not significant difference across intervention groups. A one-way ANCOVA was used to control for diet, gender, and age to compare the effects of three exercise interventions on BMI, FBG, SBP, DBP and BFP.

According to Cohen et al. It can be seen that for the intervention group effect size of BMI 0. Those values are also used to describe how much of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable.

Ideally partial Eta Squared value of BMI, FBG, SBP, DBP, and BFP revealed that large effect Table S1. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a week exercise program aerobic exercise intervention group, strength exercise group, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise group on the fasting blood glucose level, body fat percentage, and blood pressure among patients with type 2 diabetes.

From aerobic and strength exercise alone, the most promising exercise intervention was combined strength and aerobic exercise. According to current national and international physical activity guidelines, combined aerobic and resistance exercise training was recommended for patients with T2DM [ 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 ].

Our findings give support for this recommendation, as both resistance and aerobic training have a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment and control of T2DM.

However, the combination of both types of training seems to have a greater impact on glycaemic control than both types of exercise alone [ 29 , 31 , 57 ]. Kang and Baek [ 58 ] found that the 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance training programme reduced significantly fasting blood glucose among patients with T2DM.

Other studies that are similar to the current study found that combined training aerobic training plus strength training caused a decrease in fat levels around abdominal area [ 59 ], and using combined aerobic plus strength exercise was the most effective training program for fat burning [ 60 ].

Additionally, aerobic training helps to lower body fat and strength training used to increase fat-free body mass or preserved existing body mass [ 61 ]. In line with this our study also have shown that aerobic exercise intervention can more reduce body fat percentage, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose among type 2 diabetes patient than strength intervention exercise alone.

Weight problems may lead to insulin resistance, which is a risk factor to the pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM. In terms of therapy for Type 2 diabetes, it is viewed integral to enhance insulin resistance and maintain the target level of blood glucose control in addition to weight loss [ 62 ]. In the current study, the exercise program was found to significantly decrease, blood glucose level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body fat percentage.

These findings are consistent with those of the previous studies revealing that exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes was effective in improving blood glucose control and insulin resistance by promoting the intake and use of blood glucose in the skeletal muscle [ 63 , 64 , 65 ].

Therefore, aerobic and resistance workouts are effective in enhancing insulin resistance and lowering blood glucose level in patients with T2DM.

In line with our results, Latif et al. In the future, combined aerobic plus strength exercises can be used as a procedure for regulating and preventing glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. To support the current result, different research findings also show that selecting one modality or the other may be less important than engaging in any form of physical activity [ 67 ].

There are some evidences that a combination of aerobic plus resistance training improves blood glucose control more than either modality alone [ 68 , 69 , 70 ]. Patients with T2DM have an excessive threat of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is important to prevent cardiovascular complications through the management of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and C-reactive proteins an inflammatory marker [ 71 ].

Exercise has been shown to significantly reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with T2DM [ 72 ]. Combining aerobic and resistance exercise training may reduce blood pressure more effectively than either aerobic exercise or strength training alone [ 73 ].

According to Pires et al. Notably, longer reductions in systolic and diastolic BPs were observed after combined exercise intervention. The three modes of exercise intervention combined, aerobic and strength exercise intervention consistently differed in their effects on body composition body fat percentage and BMI , blood pressure SBP and DBP and fasting blood glucose among patients with T2DM.

Multiple exercise training modalities have been recommended, however, it is difficult to determine the superiority of different physical activities for T2DM [ 33 ].

Research findings comparing the effect of resistance or aerobic training alone on T2DM and its risk factors but limited studies have compared aerobic, resistance and a combination of this training [ 34 ]. The significance of our trial is determined the superiority of different physical activities for T2DM aerobic, resistance and combined exercise.

Here, we found that combined aerobic plus resistance exercise was the superiority of aerobic, resistance alone in enhancing blood glucose level, body composition and blood pressure control for patients with T2DM. Strength and limitation of this study: the randomization, which ensured that participants were comparable in major study variables at baseline, orientation sessions to minimize potential dropout, which resulted in high attendance are strengths of this study.

In addition, in contrast to previous studies [ 75 ], all exercise sessions were conducted for the same amount of time, and objective verification of the amount and intensity of exercise performed was carried out.

The possibility of over- or under-reporting was eliminated by the objective measurement of all parameters in this study. In addition, physically inactive patients with T2DM who agreed to take part in this study found the exercise instructions to be well tolerated and the participants were both men and women.

There are some limitations to this study. One limitation stems from the fact that the findings cannot be applied to other general populations. Our findings are based on a small sample size, and diet intervention was not considered.

Future research should consider those limitations. The current study findings support the undeniable benefits of regular exercise in patients with T2DM.

Generally, aerobic exercise and resistance training alone have positive effects in the prevention or management of blood glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors blood pressure.

Moreover, these effects may be additive in the combination of aerobic plus strength exercise training. Body composition BMI and body fat percentage , blood pressure SBP and DBP and fasting blood glucose significantly decreased in combined aerobic plus strength or alone, suggesting that combined aerobic plus strength exercise intervention was more effective in changing these measures.

Therefore combined aerobic plus resistance exercise was found to be the most effective in enhancing blood glucose level, body composition and blood pressure control for patients with T2DM. Care A. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes Federation I. IDF Diabetes Atlas. Google Scholar. Shaw JE et al.

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Diabetes in Ethiopia: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, complications, and cost Sullivan PW et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of Diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in the US, — Sudeck G, O.

P H, Höner, Well-Being. Kohl HW 3rd, et al. The Pandemic of Physical Inactivity: Global Action for Public Health. King N, Hills A, J. S S, Blundell. Lindström M, Isacsson S-O, J.

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Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Stone NJ, Saxon D. Approach to treatment of the patient with metabolic syndrome: lifestyle therapy.

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Mersy DJ. Health benefits of aerobic exercise. Postgrad Med. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Schwingshackl L, et al. Impact of different training modalities on glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 Diabetes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cai H, et al.

Effect of exercise on the quality of life in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a systematic review. Qual Life Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Church TS, et al. Exercise capacity and body composition as predictors of mortality among men with Diabetes. Diabetes Care. Association AD. Classification and diagnosis of Diabetes.

Dunstan DW. Aerobic exercise and resistance training for the management of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. Sullivan PW, et al.

Dutton RA, Khadavi MJ, Fredericson M. Update on rehabilitation of patellofemoral pain. Curr Sports Med Rep. Rydén L et al.

ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology ESC and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes EASD Eur Heart J, Hansen D, et al.

Exercise assessment and prescription in patients with type 2 Diabetes in the private and home care setting: clinical recommendations from AXXON Belgian Physical Therapy Association. Phys Ther. Colberg SR, et al. Exercise and type 2 Diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement.

Hordern MD, et al. Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 Diabetes and pre-diabetes: a position statement from Exercise and Sport Science Australia. J Sci Med Sport. Oliveira C, et al.

Combined exercise for people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Pan B, et al. Exercise training modalities in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

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Aerobicc activity is very important for exerciise with diabetes! If Bloodd have diabetesbeing active makes your body more sensitive to insulin the hormone aerobkc allows cells in your body to use blood Fuel Consumption App for Blood sugar management through aerobic exerciseamnagement helps manage your Techniques to reduce muscle soreness. Physical activity also helps control blood sugar levels and lowers your risk of heart disease and nerve damage. Being physically active can be fun. The goal is to get at least minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity. One way to do this is to try to fit in at least 20 to 25 minutes of activity every day. Also, on 2 or more days a week, include activities that work all major muscle groups legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms.

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Many studies underscore these and other throygh from exercise. Following are some highlights of those aedobic.

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As sugarr service to our Techniques to reduce muscle soreness, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all dugar. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

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Beyond the usual suspects for healthy resolutions. August 2, For people who have diabetes—or almost any other disease, for that matter—the benefits of exercise can't be overstated. Following are some highlights of those results: Exercise lowered HbA1c values by 0.

All forms of exercise—aerobic, resistance, or doing both combined training —were equally good at lowering HbA1c values in people with diabetes. Resistance training and aerobic exercise both helped to lower insulin resistance in previously sedentary older adults with abdominal obesity at risk for diabetes.

Combining the two types of exercise proved more beneficial than doing either one alone. People with diabetes who walked at least two hours a week were less likely to die of heart disease than their sedentary counter- parts, and those who exercised three to four hours a week cut their risk even more.

These benefits persisted even after researchers adjusted for confounding factors, including BMI, smoking, and other heart disease risk factors. Share This Page Share this page to Facebook Share this page to Twitter Share this page via Email.

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: Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise

Background Accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring during throough exercise Low GI lunch. Article Navigation. Facebook Twitter Aerobid Syndicate. This is a review of managemeent randomized-control Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise conducted from toincluding a total of 1 participants. Some medications other than insulin may increase exercise risk and doses may need to be adjusted Randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions in youth with type 2 diabetes are limited and inconclusive, although benefits are likely similar to those in adults.
Physical activity - Diabetes Canada

Activities like tai chi and yoga combine flexibility, balance, and resistance activities. Aerobic training increases mitochondrial density, insulin sensitivity, oxidative enzymes, compliance and reactivity of blood vessels, lung function, immune function, and cardiac output Moderate to high volumes of aerobic activity are associated with substantially lower cardiovascular and overall mortality risks in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, aerobic training increases cardiorespiratory fitness, decreases insulin resistance, and improves lipid levels and endothelial function In individuals with type 2 diabetes, regular training reduces A1C, triglycerides, blood pressure, and insulin resistance Alternatively, high-intensity interval training HIIT promotes rapid enhancement of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes 16 , 17 and can be performed without deterioration in glycemic control in type 1 diabetes 18 , Diabetes is an independent risk factor for low muscular strength 20 and accelerated decline in muscle strength and functional status The health benefits of resistance training for all adults include improvements in muscle mass, body composition, strength, physical function, mental health, bone mineral density, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and cardiovascular health The effect of resistance exercise on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes is unclear However, resistance exercise can assist in minimizing risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes When resistance and aerobic exercise are undertaken in one exercise session, performing resistance exercise first results in less hypoglycemia than when aerobic exercise is performed first Resistance training benefits for individuals with type 2 diabetes include improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, fat mass, blood pressure, strength, and lean body mass Flexibility and balance exercises are likely important for older adults with diabetes.

Limited joint mobility is frequently present, resulting in part from the formation of advanced glycation end products, which accumulate during normal aging and are accelerated by hyperglycemia Stretching increases range of motion around joints and flexibility 10 but does not affect glycemic control.

Balance training can reduce falls risk by improving balance and gait, even when peripheral neuropathy is present The benefits of alternative training like yoga and tai chi are less established, although yoga may promote improvement in glycemic control, lipid levels, and body composition in adults with type 2 diabetes Tai chi training may improve glycemic control, balance, neuropathic symptoms, and some dimensions of quality of life in adults with diabetes and neuropathy, although high-quality studies on this training are lacking All adults, and particularly those with type 2 diabetes, should decrease the amount of time spent in daily sedentary behavior.

Prolonged sitting should be interrupted with bouts of light activity every 30 min for blood glucose benefits, at least in adults with type 2 diabetes. The above two recommendations are additional to, and not a replacement for, increased structured exercise and incidental movement.

Sedentary behavior—waking behaviors with low energy expenditure TV viewing, desk work, etc. Higher amounts of sedentary time are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, mostly independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity participation 31 — In people with or at risk for developing type 2 diabetes, extended sedentary time is also associated with poorer glycemic control and clustered metabolic risk 36 — In adults with type 2 diabetes, interrupting prolonged sitting with 15 min of postmeal walking 45 and with 3 min of light walking and simple body-weight resistance activities every 30 min 46 improves glycemic control.

The longer-term health efficacy and durability of reducing and interrupting sitting time remain to be determined for individuals with and without diabetes. Daily exercise, or at least not allowing more than 2 days to elapse between exercise sessions, is recommended to enhance insulin action.

Adults with type 2 diabetes should ideally perform both aerobic and resistance exercise training for optimal glycemic and health outcomes. Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to meet the same physical activity goals set for youth in general.

Insulin action in muscle and liver can be modified by acute bouts of exercise and by regular physical activity Acutely, aerobic exercise increases muscle glucose uptake up to fivefold through insulin-independent mechanisms.

If enhanced insulin action is a primary goal, then daily moderate- or high-intensity exercise is likely optimal Regular training increases muscle capillary density, oxidative capacity, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling proteins 47 , which are all reversible with detraining Both aerobic and resistance training promote adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver associated with enhanced insulin action, even without weight loss 56 , Regular aerobic training increases muscle insulin sensitivity in individuals with prediabetes 58 and type 2 diabetes 59 in proportion to exercise volume Resistance training enhances insulin action similarly 56 , as do HIIT and other modes 2 , 15 — Combining endurance exercise with resistance exercise may provide greater improvements 61 , and HIIT may be superior to continuous aerobic training in adults with diabetes The Look AHEAD Action for Health in Diabetes trial 62 was the largest randomized trial evaluating a lifestyle intervention in older adults with type 2 diabetes compared with a diabetes support and education control group.

Major cardiovascular events were the same in both groups, possibly in part due to greater use of cardioprotective medications in the diabetes support and education group However, as reviewed by Pi-Sunyer 63 , the intensive lifestyle intervention group achieved significantly greater sustained improvements in weight loss, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood glucose control, blood pressure, and lipids with fewer medications; less sleep apnea, severe diabetic kidney disease and retinopathy, depression, sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and knee pain; and better physical mobility maintenance and quality of life, with lower overall health care costs.

This trial provided very strong evidence of profound health benefits from intensive lifestyle intervention. For glycemic control, combined training is superior to either type of training undertaken alone 61 , Therefore, adults with type 2 diabetes should ideally perform both aerobic and resistance exercise training for optimal glycemic and health outcomes.

Randomized trials evaluating exercise interventions in youth with type 2 diabetes are limited and inconclusive, although benefits are likely similar to those in adults.

In the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth TODAY study 67 , youth aged 10—17 years with type 2 diabetes were stabilized on metformin and then randomized to metformin plus placebo, metformin plus rosiglitazone, or metformin plus lifestyle intervention and followed for a mean of 3.

A recent systematic review of 53 studies 30 of diet and physical activity promotion programs vs. usual care, 13 of more intensive vs.

less intensive programs, and 13 of single programs that evaluated 66 lifestyle intervention programs reported that, compared with usual care, diet and physical activity promotion programs reduced type 2 diabetes incidence, body weight, and fasting blood glucose while improving other cardiometabolic risk factors Trials evaluating less resource-intensive lifestyle interventions have also shown effectiveness 3 , and adherence to guidelines is associated with a greater weight loss Youth and adults with type 1 diabetes can benefit from being physically active, and activity should be recommended to all.

Frequent blood glucose checks are required to implement carbohydrate intake and insulin dose adjustment strategies. Insulin users can exercise using either basal-bolus injection regimens or insulin pumps, but there are advantages and disadvantages to both insulin delivery methods.

Continuous glucose monitoring during physical activity can be used to detect hypoglycemia when used as an adjunct rather than in place of capillary glucose tests. Youth experience many health benefits from physical activity participation 9. In adults, regular physical activity has been associated with decreased mortality There is insufficient evidence on the ideal type, timing, intensity, and duration of exercise for optimal glycemic control.

Blood glucose responses to physical activity in type 1 diabetes are highly variable In general, aerobic exercise decreases blood glucose levels if performed during postprandial periods with the usual insulin dose administered at the meal before exercise 73 , and prolonged activity done then may cause exaggerated decreases 74 — Exercise while fasting may produce a lesser decrease or a small increase in blood glucose Variable glycemic responses to physical activity 72 make uniform recommendations for management of food intake and insulin dosing difficult.

As recommended in Table 1 , blood glucose concentrations should always be checked prior to exercise undertaken by individuals with type 1 diabetes. Carbohydrate intake required will vary with insulin regimens, timing of exercise, type of activity, and more 87 , but it will also depend on starting blood glucose levels.

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion CSII users can reduce 90 or suspend 91 insulin delivery at the start of exercise, but this strategy does not always prevent hypoglycemia 91 , Frequent blood glucose checks are required when implementing insulin and carbohydrate adjustments.

Suggested carbohydrate intake or other actions based on blood glucose levels at the start of exercise. may not require any additional carbohydrate intake. For prolonged activities at a moderate intensity, consume additional carbohydrate, as needed 0.

Test for ketones. Do not perform any exercise if moderate-to-large amounts of ketones are present. Initiate mild-to-moderate intensity exercise. If ketones are negative or trace , consider conservative insulin correction e. Adapted from Zaharieva and Riddell Suggested initial pre-exercise meal insulin bolus reduction for activity started within 90 min after insulin administration.

Recommendations compiled based on four studies 94 — N-A, not assessed as exercise intensity is too high to sustain for 60 min. Estimated from study Individuals using CSII or MDI as a basal-bolus regimen can exercise with few restrictions. CSII offers some advantages over MDI due to greater flexibility in basal rate adjustments and limiting postexercise hyperglycemia 98 , with some limitations.

For example, aerobic exercise may accelerate basal insulin absorption from the subcutaneous depot 74 , whereas basal insulin glargine absorption is largely unaffected Skin irritation, pump tubing, and wearing a pump that is visible to others can be concerns In certain sports, such as basketball or contact sports, wearing pumps and other devices may be prohibited during competition.

Frustration with CSII devices and exercise may lead to discontinuation of pump therapy Continuous glucose monitoring CGM may decrease the fear of exercise-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes by providing blood glucose trends that allow users to prevent and treat hypoglycemia sooner Although a few studies have found acceptable CGM accuracy during exercise — , others have reported inadequate accuracy and other problems, such as sensor filament breakage , , inability to calibrate , and time lags between the change in blood glucose and its detection by CGM Differences in sensor performance have also been noted — Although it is a potentially useful tool during and after exercise , CGM values have traditionally required confirmation by finger-stick glucose testing prior to making regimen changes, but approval of nonadjunctive use is likely forthcoming in the near future.

Pre-exercise medical clearance is generally unnecessary for asymptomatic individuals prior to beginning low- or moderate-intensity physical activity not exceeding the demands of brisk walking or everyday living. B for type 2 diabetes, C for type 1 diabetes.

Yoga and tai chi may be included based on individual preferences to increase flexibility, muscular strength, and balance.

Individuals with diabetes or prediabetes are encouraged to increase their total daily incidental nonexercise physical activity to gain additional health benefits. To gain more health benefits from physical activity programs, participation in supervised training is recommended over nonsupervised programs.

The ACSM no longer includes risk factor assessment in the exercise preparticipation health screening process. However, their recommendation is that anyone with diabetes who is currently sedentary and desires to begin physical activity at any intensity even low intensity should obtain prior medical clearance from a health care professional We believe this recommendation is excessively conservative.

Physical activity does carry some potential health risks for people with diabetes, including acute complications like cardiac events, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia.

In low- and moderate-intensity activity undertaken by adults with type 2 diabetes, the risk of exercise-induced adverse events is low. In individuals with type 1 diabetes any age the only common exercise-induced adverse event is hypoglycemia.

No current evidence suggests that any screening protocol beyond usual diabetes care reduces risk of exercise-induced adverse events in asymptomatic individuals with diabetes , Thus, pre-exercise medical clearance is not necessary for asymptomatic individuals receiving diabetes care consistent with guidelines who wish to begin low- or moderate-intensity physical activity not exceeding the demands of brisk walking or everyday living.

However, some individuals who plan to increase their exercise intensity or who meet certain higher-risk criteria may benefit from referral to a health care provider for a checkup and possible exercise stress test before starting such activities 6.

In addition, most adults with diabetes may also benefit from working with a diabetes-knowledgeable exercise physiologist or certified fitness professional to assist them in formulating a safe and effective exercise prescription. People with diabetes should perform aerobic exercise regularly.

Daily exercise, or at least not allowing more than 2 days to elapse between exercise sessions, is recommended to decrease insulin resistance, regardless of diabetes type 16 , Many adults, including most with type 2 diabetes, would be unable or unwilling to participate in such intense exercise and should engage in moderate exercise for the recommended duration Table 3.

Exercise training recommendations: types of exercise, intensity, duration, frequency, and progression. Balance for older adults : practice standing on one leg, exercises using balance equipment, lower-body and core resistance exercises, tai chi.

Moderate e. For adults able to run steadily at 6 miles per h 9. At least 8—10 exercises with completion of 1—3 sets of 10—15 repetitions to near fatigue per set on every exercise early in training. A greater emphasis should be placed on vigorous intensity aerobic exercise if fitness is a primary goal of exercise and not contraindicated by complications.

Both HIIT and continuous exercise training are appropriate activities for most individuals with diabetes. Increase in resistance can be followed by a greater number of sets and finally by increased training frequency. Youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should follow general recommendations for children and adolescents.

Low-volume HIIT, which involves short bursts of very intense activity interspersed with longer periods of recovery at low to moderate intensity, is an alternative approach to continuous aerobic activity 16 , However, its safety and efficacy remain unclear for some adults with diabetes , Those who wish to perform HIIT should be clinically stable, have been participating at least in regular moderate-intensity exercise, and likely be supervised at least initially The risks with advanced disease are unclear , and continuous, moderate-intensity exercise may be safer The optimal HIIT training protocol has yet to be determined.

Although heavier resistance training with free weights and weight machines may improve glycemic control and strength more , doing resistance training of any intensity is recommended to improve strength, balance, and ability to engage in activities of daily living throughout the life span.

Although flexibility training may be desirable for individuals with all types of diabetes, it should not substitute for other recommended activities i. Many lower-body and core-strengthening exercises concomitantly improve balance and may be included.

Yoga and tai chi can be included based on individual preferences to increase flexibility, strength, and balance.

Increasing unstructured physical activity e. Unstructured activity also reduces total daily sitting time. Supervised aerobic or resistance training reduces A1C in adults with type 2 diabetes whether or not they include dietary cointervention, but unsupervised exercise only reduces A1C with a concomitant dietary intervention Similarly, individuals undertaking supervised aerobic and resistance exercise achieve greater improvements in A1C, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fitness, muscular strength, and HDL cholesterol Thus, supervised training is recommended when feasible, at least for adults with type 2 diabetes.

Women with preexisting diabetes of any type should be advised to engage in regular physical activity prior to and during pregnancy. Pregnant women with or at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus should be advised to engage in 20—30 min of moderate-intensity exercise on most or all days of the week.

Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy have been shown to benefit most women by improving cardiovascular health and general fitness while reducing the risk of complications like preeclampsia and cesarean delivery Regular physical activity during pregnancy also lowers the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus , Once gestational diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, either aerobic or resistance training can improve insulin action and glycemic control In women with gestational diabetes mellitus, particularly those who are overweight and obese, vigorous-intensity exercise during pregnancy may reduce the odds of excess gestational weight gain Ideally, the best time to start physical activity is prior to pregnancy to reduce gestational diabetes mellitus risk , but it is safe to initiate during pregnancy with very few contraindications Any pregnant women using insulin should be aware of the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise and increased risk of hypoglycemia, particularly during the first trimester Insulin regimen and carbohydrate intake changes should be used to prevent exercise-related hypoglycemia.

Other strategies involve including short sprints, performing resistance exercise before aerobic exercise in the same session, and activity timing. Exercise-induced hyperglycemia is more common in type 1 diabetes but may be modulated with insulin administration or a lower-intensity aerobic cooldown.

Exercising with hyperglycemia and elevated blood ketones is not recommended. Some medications besides insulin may increase the risks of exercise-related hypoglycemia and doses may need to be adjusted based on exercise training.

Exercise-induced hypoglycemia is common in people with type 1 diabetes and, to a lesser extent, people with type 2 diabetes using insulin or insulin secretagogues. In addition to insulin regimen and carbohydrate intake changes, a brief 10 s maximal intensity sprint performed before or after a moderate-intensity exercise session may protect against hypoglycemia Performing high-intensity bouts intermittently during moderate aerobic exercise also slows blood glucose declines 81 , , , as can resistance exercise done immediately prior to aerobic Exercise-induced nocturnal hypoglycemia is a major concern Exercise-induced hyperglycemia is more common in type 1 diabetes.

Purposeful insulin omission before exercise can promote a rise in glycemia, as can malfunctioning infusion sets Individuals with type 2 diabetes may also experience increases in blood glucose after aerobic or resistance exercise, particularly if they are insulin users and administer too little insulin for meals before activity Overconsumption of carbohydrates before or during exercise, along with aggressive insulin reduction, can promote hyperglycemia during any exercise Very intense exercise such as sprinting , brief but intense aerobic exercise , and heavy powerlifting , may promote hyperglycemia, especially if starting blood glucose levels are elevated Hyperglycemia risk is mitigated if intense activities are interspersed between moderate-intensity aerobic ones 82 , Similarly, combining resistance training done first with aerobic training second optimizes glucose stability in type 1 diabetes Millán, personal communication.

Excessive insulin corrections after exercise increase nocturnal hypoglycemia risk, which can result in mortality Adults with diabetes are frequently treated with multiple medications for diabetes and other comorbid conditions.

Some medications other than insulin may increase exercise risk and doses may need to be adjusted , Although appropriate changes should be individualized, Table 4 lists general considerations and guidelines for medications.

Exercise considerations for diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol medications and recommended safety and dose adjustments.

If exercise-induced hypoglycemia has occurred, decrease dose on exercise days to reduce hypoglycemia risk. May increase risk of hypoglycemia when used with insulin or sulfonylureas but not when used alone. Generally safe; no dose adjustment for exercise but may need to lower insulin or sulfonylurea dose.

Doses may need to be adjusted to accommodate the improvements from training and avoid dehydration. Physical activity increases bodily heat production and core temperature, leading to greater skin blood flow and sweating.

In relatively young adults with type 1 diabetes, temperature regulation is only impaired during high-intensity exercise , With increasing age, poor blood glucose control, and neuropathy, skin blood flow and sweating may be impaired in adults with type 1 , and type 2 diabetes, increasing the risk of heat-related illness.

Chronic hyperglycemia also increases risk through dehydration caused by osmotic diuresis, and some medications that lower blood pressure may also impact hydration and electrolyte balance. Active individuals with type 1 diabetes are not at increased risk of tendon injury , but this may not apply to sedentary or older individuals with diabetes.

Given that diabetes may lead to exercise-related overuse injuries due to changes in joint structures related to glycemic excursions , exercise training for anyone with diabetes should progress appropriately to avoid excessive aggravation to joint surfaces and structures, particularly when taking statin medications for lipid control Physical activity with vascular diseases can be undertaken safely but with appropriate precautions.

Physical activity done with peripheral neuropathy necessitates proper foot care to prevent, detect, and prevent problems early to avoid ulceration and amputation.

The presence of autonomic neuropathy may complicate being active; certain precautions are warranted to prevent problems during activity. Vigorous aerobic or resistance exercise; jumping, jarring, head-down activities; and breath holding should be avoided in anyone with severe nonproliferative and unstable proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Exercise does not accelerate progression of kidney disease and can be undertaken safely, even during dialysis sessions. Regular stretching and appropriate progression of activities should be done to manage joint changes and diabetes-related orthopedic limitations.

Macrovascular and microvascular diabetes-related complications can develop and worsen with inadequate blood glucose control , Vascular and neural complications of diabetes often cause physical limitation and varying levels of disability requiring precautions during exercise, as recommended in Table 5.

Physical activity consideration, precautions, and recommended activities for exercising with health-related complications. Coronary perfusion may actually be enhanced during higher-intensity aerobic or resistance exercise. Onset of chest pain on exertion, but exercise-induced ischemia may be silent in some with diabetes.

Stop exercise immediately should symptoms of myocardial infarction such as chest pain, radiating pain, shortness of breath, and others occur during physical activity and seek medical attention. Stop exercise immediately if symptoms of a stroke occurring suddenly and often affecting only one side of the body happen during exercise.

Lower-extremity resistance training improves functional performance Low- or moderate-intensity walking, arm ergometer, and leg ergometer preferred as aerobic activities Regular aerobic exercise may also prevent the onset or delay the progression of peripheral neuropathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes Proper care of the feet is needed to prevent foot ulcers and lower the risk of amputation 6.

Keep feet dry and use appropriate footwear, silica gel or air midsoles, and polyester or blend socks not pure cotton. Manage with appropriate footwear and choice of activities to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk Moderate walking is not likely to increase risk of foot ulcers or reulceration with peripheral neuropathy May cause postural hypotension, chronotropic incompetence, delayed gastric emptying, altered thermoregulation, and dehydration during exercise 6.

With postural hypotension, avoid activities with rapid postural or directional changes to avoid fainting or falling. With cardiac autonomic neuropathy, obtain physician approval and possibly undergo symptom-limited exercise testing before commencing exercise With blunted heart rate response, use heart rate reserve and ratings of perceived exertion to monitor exercise intensity Individuals with mild to moderate nonproliferative changes have limited or no risk for eye damage from physical activity.

With moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, avoid activities that dramatically elevate blood pressure, such as powerlifting. Individuals with unstable diabetic retinopathy are at risk for vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Avoid activities that dramatically elevate blood pressure, such as vigorous activity of any type.

Avoid vigorous exercise; jumping, jarring, and head-down activities; and breath holding 6. Cataracts do not impact the ability to exercise, only the safety of doing so due to loss of visual acuity. Exercise does not accelerate progression of kidney disease even though protein excretion acutely increases afterward 6 , Greater participation in moderate-to-vigorous leisure time activity and higher physical activity levels may actually moderate the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy — All activities okay, but vigorous exercise should be avoided the day before urine protein tests are performed to prevent false positive readings.

Both aerobic and resistance training improve physical function and quality of life in individuals with kidney disease. All activities okay, but exercise should begin at a low intensity and volume if aerobic capacity and muscle function are substantially reduced.

Doing supervised, moderate aerobic physical activity undertaken during dialysis sessions may be beneficial and increase compliance Exercise should begin at a low intensity and volume if aerobic capacity and muscle function are substantially reduced.

Individuals with diabetes are more prone to structural changes to joints that can limit movement, including shoulder adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, metatarsal fractures, and neuropathy-related joint disorders Charcot foot In addition to engaging in other activities as able , do regular flexibility training to maintain greater joint range of motion 10 , Stretch within warm-ups or after an activity to increase joint range of motion best Most low- and moderate-intensity activities okay, but more non—weight-bearing or low-impact exercise may be undertaken to reduce stress on joints.

Do range-of-motion activities and light resistance exercise to increase strength of muscles surrounding affected joints. Avoid activities with high risk of joint trauma, such as contact sports and ones with rapid directional changes.

Targeted behavior-change strategies should be used to increase physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes. For adults with type 2 diabetes, Internet-delivered interventions for physical activity promotion may be used to improve outcomes.

Behavioral interventions can significantly increase physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes , and A1C reductions produced by such interventions have been sustained to 24 months However, motivational interviewing is not significantly better than usual care , and other intervention factors associated with weight loss, such as number and duration of contacts, have been inconsistent or not associated with greater participation Wearing the device may prompt activity, and it provides feedback for self-monitoring.

Pedometer use in adults with type 2 diabetes increased their daily steps by 1,, but did not improve A1C Using a daily steps goal e. The positive findings for pedometers are not universal , however, and some individuals may require greater support to realize benefits.

Longer-term efficacy and determination of which populations can benefit from pedometers and other wearable activity trackers require further evaluation. Given that the majority of individuals with type 2 diabetes have access to the Internet, technology-based support is appealing for extending clinical intervention reach.

For adults with type 2 diabetes, Internet-delivered physical activity promotion interventions may be more effective than usual care More evidence is needed regarding social media approaches, given the importance of social and peer support in diabetes self-management Physical activity and exercise should be recommended and prescribed to all individuals with diabetes as part of management of glycemic control and overall health.

Specific recommendations and precautions will vary by the type of diabetes, age, activity done, and presence of diabetes-related health complications. Recommendations should be tailored to meet the specific needs of each individual. In addition to engaging in regular physical activity, all adults should be encouraged to decrease the total amount of daily sedentary time and to break up sitting time with frequent bouts of activity.

Finally, behavior-change strategies can be used to promote the adoption and maintenance of lifetime physical activity.

Duality of Interest. No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. This position statement was reviewed and approved by the American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee in June and ratified by the American Diabetes Association Board of Directors in September Sign In or Create an Account.

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Article Navigation. Position Statement October 11 Colberg ; Sheri R. Corresponding author: Sheri R. Colberg, scolberg odu. This Site.

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toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. B Prolonged sitting should be interrupted with bouts of light activity every 30 min for blood glucose benefits, at least in adults with type 2 diabetes.

C The above two recommendations are additional to, and not a replacement for, increased structured exercise and incidental movement. B Adults with type 2 diabetes should ideally perform both aerobic and resistance exercise training for optimal glycemic and health outcomes. C Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to meet the same physical activity goals set for youth in general.

B Insulin users can exercise using either basal-bolus injection regimens or insulin pumps, but there are advantages and disadvantages to both insulin delivery methods.

C Continuous glucose monitoring during physical activity can be used to detect hypoglycemia when used as an adjunct rather than in place of capillary glucose tests. Table 1 Suggested carbohydrate intake or other actions based on blood glucose levels at the start of exercise. Pre-exercise blood glucose.

Carbohydrate intake or other action. Initiate mild-to-moderate exercise and avoid intense exercise until glucose levels decrease. View Large. Table 2 Suggested initial pre-exercise meal insulin bolus reduction for activity started within 90 min after insulin administration.

Be sure to carry some form of fast-acting carbohydrate with you in case you have to treat low blood sugar quickly. Find more tips for safely exercising with diabetes.

Making exercise a regular part of your life will have a positive impact on your health—and your blood sugar levels. Burnout Can Be Defeated. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linked In Share by Email.

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Your privacy is important to us. Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Skip to footer Self-management News Educational videos. Home » Articles and Blogs » What are the best exercises to control blood sugar? First off, how does exercise affect my blood sugar?

In fact, increased insulin sensitivity can last 24 hours or more after your workout. Exercise causes your muscles to contract, which allows your cells to take up glucose for energy, regardless if insulin is available. What are the best exercises for blood sugar control?

Some of the exercises with the most health benefits include: Aerobic exercise: continuous bouts of exercise e. Resistance anaerobic training: brief, repetitive exercises using weights, resistance bands or your own body weight to build muscle strength.

Choose approximately six to eight exercises that target the major muscle groups in the body. Interval training: short bursts of vigorous exercise e.

Aquatic exercise: water activities can have similar health benefits to other exercise—and have the benefit of being easy on the joints for people with conditions such as osteoarthritis. Try brisk water walking or swimming laps. What blood glucose range should you target when you exercise?

Aerobic exercise e. Anaerobic exercise e. Read also about Insulin adjustments for physical activity. Physical activity is important for everyone. However people who take insulin often find that managing blood glucose levels during exercise can be a real challenge.

How do I get the most benefit from the exercise I do? Read also about Why exercise is good for diabetes. Exercise is one of the best things you can do to help manage your diabetes, and there are a number of reasons why. Footer Living Well with Diabetes Healthy eating, management, exercise, medication and other diabetes information Subscriber Type Diabetes Digest Healthcare Professionals Better Management.

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Diabetes and exercise: When to monitor your blood sugar - Mayo Clinic In people without diabetes, high intensity aerobic exercise has been shown to help regulate blood sugar levels and improve physical fitness. Participation in regular physical activity is possible and should be encouraged. Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation. Stretching increases range of motion around joints and flexibility 10 but does not affect glycemic control. In addition to getting stronger, improving heart health, decreasing stress, aiding weight management and loss and improving general mental health, those with type 1 diabetes can see these benefits:. One limitation stems from the fact that the findings cannot be applied to other general populations.
Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise Blood sugar management through aerobic exercise research shows little sygar of infection aeroic prostate biopsies. Discrimination at Optimal macronutrient ratios is linked to high blood pressure. Icy managemrnt and toes: Poor circulation or Raynaud's phenomenon? For people who have diabetes—or almost any other disease, for that matter—the benefits of exercise can't be overstated. Exercise helps control weight, lower blood pressure, lower harmful LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, raise healthy HDL cholesterol, strengthen muscles and bones, reduce anxiety, and improve your general well-being.

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