Category: Diet

Sports nutrition for team sports

Sports nutrition for team sports

Nybo Nitrition. Schneiker KT, Bishop D, Dawson B, Hackett LP. Sports nutrition for team sports intoxication Hyponatraemia low nutrrition sodium. Home Healthy eating. Download citation. In addition, many companies make electrolyte tablets that can be combined with water to provide the necessary electrolytes to keep you hydrated. Hofman Z, Smeets R, Verlaan G, Lugt R, Verstappen PA.

Sports nutrition for team sports -

Fats provide a valuable source of calories, help support sport-related hormones, and can help promote recovery from exercise. In particular, omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to help athletes recover from intense training.

After protein and carbohydrates, fats will make up the rest of the calories in your diet. Another notable factor to consider when optimizing your sports nutrition is timing — when you eat a meal or a specific nutrient in relation to when you train or compete.

Timing your meals around training or competition may support enhanced recovery and tissue repair, enhanced muscle building, and improvements in your mood after high intensity exercise. To best optimize muscle protein synthesis, the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN suggests consuming a meal containing 20—40 g of protein every 3—4 hours throughout the day.

Consider consuming 30—60 g of a simple carbohydrate source within 30 minutes of exercising. For certain endurance athletes who complete training sessions or competitions lasting longer than 60 minutes, the ISSN recommends consuming 30—60 g of carbs per hour during the exercise session to maximize energy levels.

But if your intense training lasts less than 1 hour, you can probably wait until the session is over to replenish your carbs. When engaging in sustained high intensity exercise, you need to replenish fluids and electrolytes to prevent mild to potentially severe dehydration.

Athletes training or competing in hot conditions need to pay particularly close attention to their hydration status, as fluids and electrolytes can quickly become depleted in high temperatures. During an intense training session, athletes should consume 6—8 oz of fluid every 15 minutes to maintain a good fluid balance.

A common method to determine how much fluid to drink is to weigh yourself before and after training. Every pound 0. You can restore electrolytes by drinking sports drinks and eating foods high in sodium and potassium.

Because many sports drinks lack adequate electrolytes, some people choose to make their own. In addition, many companies make electrolyte tablets that can be combined with water to provide the necessary electrolytes to keep you hydrated. There are endless snack choices that can top off your energy stores without leaving you feeling too full or sluggish.

The ideal snack is balanced, providing a good ratio of macronutrients, but easy to prepare. When snacking before a workout, focus on lower fat options , as they tend to digest more quickly and are likely to leave you feeling less full.

After exercise, a snack that provides a good dose of protein and carbs is especially important for replenishing glycogen stores and supporting muscle protein synthesis. They help provide an appropriate balance of energy, nutrients, and other bioactive compounds in food that are not often found in supplement form.

That said, considering that athletes often have greater nutritional needs than the general population, supplementation can be used to fill in any gaps in the diet. Protein powders are isolated forms of various proteins, such as whey, egg white, pea, brown rice, and soy.

Protein powders typically contain 10—25 g of protein per scoop, making it easy and convenient to consume a solid dose of protein. Research suggests that consuming a protein supplement around training can help promote recovery and aid in increases in lean body mass.

For example, some people choose to add protein powder to their oats to boost their protein content a bit. Carb supplements may help sustain your energy levels, particularly if you engage in endurance sports lasting longer than 1 hour. These concentrated forms of carbs usually provide about 25 g of simple carbs per serving, and some include add-ins such as caffeine or vitamins.

They come in gel or powder form. Many long-distance endurance athletes will aim to consume 1 carb energy gel containing 25 g of carbs every 30—45 minutes during an exercise session longer than 1 hour. Sports drinks also often contain enough carbs to maintain energy levels, but some athletes prefer gels to prevent excessive fluid intake during training or events, as this may result in digestive distress.

Many athletes choose to take a high quality multivitamin that contains all the basic vitamins and minerals to make up for any potential gaps in their diet. This is likely a good idea for most people, as the potential benefits of supplementing with a multivitamin outweigh the risks.

One vitamin in particular that athletes often supplement is vitamin D, especially during winter in areas with less sun exposure.

Low vitamin D levels have been shown to potentially affect sports performance, so supplementing is often recommended. Research shows that caffeine can improve strength and endurance in a wide range of sporting activities , such as running, jumping, throwing, and weightlifting.

Many athletes choose to drink a strong cup of coffee before training to get a boost, while others turn to supplements that contain synthetic forms of caffeine, such as pre-workouts.

Whichever form you decide to use, be sure to start out with a small amount. You can gradually increase your dose as long as your body tolerates it. Supplementing with omega-3 fats such as fish oil may improve sports performance and recovery from intense exercise.

You can certainly get omega-3s from your diet by eating foods such as fatty fish, flax and chia seeds, nuts, and soybeans.

Plant-based omega-3 supplements are also available for those who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. Creatine is a compound your body produces from amino acids. It aids in energy production during short, high intensity activities. Supplementing daily with 5 g of creatine monohydrate — the most common form — has been shown to improve power and strength output during resistance training, which can carry over to sports performance.

Most sporting federations do not classify creatine as a banned substance, as its effects are modest compared with those of other compounds. Considering their low cost and wide availability and the extensive research behind them, creatine supplements may be worthwhile for some athletes.

With less time, try something smaller, lower in fat and fiber, like instant oatmeal with fruit and milk, or an apple with nuts or peanut butter. Effective nutrition and hydration strategies during workouts and games depend on how long each session lasts, the environmental conditions, and whether you are training or competing just once or multiple times on the same day.

It takes minutes of high-intensity activity to become almost completely depleted of your glycogen stores. If the activity is going to be less than minutes and you are well-nourished beforehand , focus on water. This will help with replenishing glycogen, as well as any sodium losses.

For individuals exercising for more than an hour or in the heat, a sports drink or other carbohydrate source may be appropriate to maintain performance. When ingesting carbohydrate during exercise, you should consume no more than grams of carbohydrates per hour.

Many sports drinks contain g per 8 oz of fluid and carbohydrate gels have anywhere from g per packet. Sports beans contain 25 g of carbohydrate per packet. Ample water intake is extremely important for any athlete — recreational or competitive.

Nutrition post-workout or game is also very important, because it promotes recovery by replenishing glycogen stores and helping repair muscle damage.

Recovery starts fairly close to when you finish your activity. Therefore, within about minutes, focus on protein and carbohydrate foods or drinks. Consume a ratio of or of protein to carbohydrate.

Consuming a combination of carbohydrate and protein is ideal for aiding in muscle recovery and repair, improving recovery time, providing energy and potentially decreasing soreness. A sweat loss of more than 2 percent of your pre-activity, normally hydrated body weight has been shown to negatively affect your athletic performance, and more so in a hot and humid environment.

Use the following strategies to avoid significant dehydration:. Posted In Basketball , Healthy Living , Nutrition , Sports Medicine. Written by SHN Staff. November 14, Pre-activity nutrition Pre-activity nutrition is divided into two main time frames, based on when practices and games are scheduled.

Pre-activity meal hours before grams of carbohydrates High in lean protein Low in fiber and fat fl. However, it would be unwise to extrapolate the results of this study to adolescents per se because the participants were an uneven number of boys and girls [ 55 ].

Foskett and colleagues addressed the question of whether or not ingesting a CHO-E solution during prolonged, intermittent high-intensity shuttle running has performance benefits for games players when their muscle glycogen stores were well stocked before exercise [ 56 ]. To test this hypothesis, six university-level soccer players completed six blocks of the LIST 90 min and then consumed a high-carbohydrate diet for 48 h before repeating the LIST to fatigue.

During subsequent performance of the LIST, they ingested either a 6. The total exercise time during the CHO-E trial was significantly longer min than during the placebo trial min [ 56 ]. There was no evidence of glycogen sparing and yet during the CHO-E trial the soccer players ran for an additional 27 min beyond their performance time during the placebo trial.

While only speculative, the greater endurance may have been a consequence of higher blood glucose levels that did not compromise the supply of glucose to the central nervous system as early as in the placebo trial, thus delaying an inhibition of motor drive as glycogen stores became ever lower [ 57 , 58 ].

There is some evidence that gastric emptying of a CHO-E solution is slower while performing brief periods of high-intensity cycling than during lower intensity exercise [ 59 ]. To examine whether or not the same slowing of gastric emptying occurs during variable-speed running, Leiper and colleagues completed two studies in which games players ingested CHO-E solutions before and during exercise [ 60 , 61 ].

The same gastric emptying and timing was repeated while the soccer players performed two min periods of walking with the same min rest between the two activity periods. Gastric emptying was slower during the first min period than during the walking-only trial, but during the second 15 min of the soccer game there was no statistical difference in the emptying rate.

In total, the volume of fluid emptied from the stomach was less than during the same period while walking [ 60 ]. In the second running study, gastric emptying of a 6.

The exercise intensities during the two min activity cycles of the LIST were higher and more closely controlled than those self-selected exercise intensities achieved during the five-a-side soccer game.

Nevertheless, the results were quite similar in that gastric emptying was slower during the first 15 min of exercise both for the CHO-E and the placebo solutions than while walking for the same period.

However, during the second 15 min, gastric emptying of both solutions was similar during both the running and the walking trials with a trend for slightly faster emptying rates [ 61 ]. Whether or not this greater gastric emptying later in exercise suggests an acute adaptation to coping with large gastric volumes remains to be determined.

Even with an intensity-induced reduction in gastric emptying, the available evidence does not suggest that team sport players should drink carbohydrate-free solutions. On the contrary, there is sufficient evidence to support the ingestion of CHO-E solutions during prolonged, intermittent variable-speed running to improve endurance capacity [ 24 , 52 , 55 ].

However, even recognising the benefits of ingesting CHO-E solutions during intermittent variable-speed running, young athletes appear to not meet the recommended intakes [ 8 ]. Carbohydrate gels provide a convenient means of accessing this essential fuel during prolonged running and cycling.

However, there are only a few studies on the benefits of ingesting carbohydrate gels during variable-speed shuttle running. Of the two available studies, both report that ingesting carbohydrate gels improves endurance running capacity.

One of the studies reported that when games players ingested either an isotonic carbohydrate gel or an artificially sweetened orange placebo while performing the LIST protocol, their endurance capacity was greater during the gel 6.

In the second study on intermittent shuttle running, Phillips and colleagues compared the performances of games players when they ingested either a carbohydrate gel or non-carbohydrate gel before and at min intervals while completing the LIST protocol [ 63 ]. They reported that during the carbohydrate-gel trial, the games players ran longer in Part B 4.

Concerns about the potential delay in gastric emptying when ingesting carbohydrate gels before and during exercise are allayed by the performance benefits reported in the above studies. In addition, it appears that the rate of oxidation of carbohydrate gels during min of submaximal cycling is no different to that after ingesting a Although carbohydrate-protein mixtures have mainly been considered as a means of accelerating post-exercise glycogen re-synthesis, Highton and colleagues examined their performance benefits during prolonged variable-speed shuttle running [ 65 ].

However there were no significant differences in the performance between trials. Exercise performance in the heat is generally poorer than during exercise in temperate climates. Team sports are no exception, for example Mohr and colleagues have clearly shown that the performance of elite soccer players is significantly compromised when matches are played in the heat, i.

There are only a few studies on exercise performance during variable-speed running in hot and cooler environments. Using the same experimental design, Morris et al. The m sprint speeds of the female athletes were also significantly slower in the heat, declining with test duration, which was not the case during exercise in the cooler environment.

Again, there was a high correlation between the rates of rise of the rectal temperatures of the athletes in the heat but it was less strong during exercise at the lower ambient temperature.

In a follow-up study, Morris et al. Rectal and muscle temperatures were significantly higher at the point of fatigue after exercising in the heat. Analyses of muscle biopsy samples taken from eight sportsmen before and after completing the LIST protocol under the two environmental conditions showed that the rate of glycogenolysis was greater in seven of the eight men in the heat.

However, glycogen levels were higher at fatigue after exercise in the heat than after exercise in the cooler environment [ 68 ]. Muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels were lower at exhaustion during exercise in the cooler environment, suggesting that reduced carbohydrate availability contributed to the onset of fatigue.

At exhaustion after exercise in the heat muscle, glycogen and blood glucose levels were significantly higher, suggesting that fatigue was largely a consequence of high body temperature rather than carbohydrate availability.

Endurance capacity during exercise in the heat is improved when sufficient fluid is ingested [ 69 ], but does drinking CHO-E solution rather than water have added performance benefits? This question was addressed in a three-trial design in which nine male games players ingested either a flavoured-water placebo, a taste-matched placebo, or a 6.

Although ingesting the CHO-E solution resulted in greater metabolic changes, there were no differences in the performances during the three trials. While the games players were accustomed to performing prolonged variable-speed running during training and competition, they were not acclimatised to exercising in the heat.

Clarke and colleagues attempted to tease out the benefits of delaying the rise in core temperature and CHO-E ingestion on performance in the heat [ 71 ]. The four-trial design included two trials in which the soccer players were pre-cooled before the test and two trials without pre-cooling.

In each pair of trials, the soccer players ingested, at min intervals, either a 6. Performance was assessed at the end of 90 min at the self-selected speed that the soccer players predicted was sustainable for 30 min but ran for only 3 min at this speed. Thereafter, their high-intensity exercise capacity was determined during uphill treadmill running that was designed to lead to exhaustion in about 60 s [ 72 ].

They found that pre-cooling and CHO-E solution ingestion resulted in a superior performance at the self-selected running speed than CHO-E ingestion alone.

However, CHO-E solution ingestion, with or without pre-cooling, resulted in a longer running time, albeit quite short, during high-intensity exercise test than during the placebo trials.

The findings of this study provide evidence to support the conclusion that variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue.

Consuming carbohydrates immediately after exercise increases the repletion rate of muscle glycogen [ 73 ]. In competitive team sports, the relevant question is whether or not this nutritional strategy also returns performance during subsequent exercise.

Addressing this question, Nicholas and colleagues recruited games players who performed five blocks of the LIST 75 min followed by alternate m sprints with jogging recovery to fatigue, and 22 h later they attempted to repeat their performance [ 74 ].

When this study was repeated using energy- and macro-nutrient-matched HGI and LGI carbohydrate meals during the h recovery, there were no differences in performance of the games players [ 47 ]. This is not surprising because the advantage of pre-exercise LGI carbohydrate meals is the lower plasma insulin levels that allow greater rates of fat mobilisation and oxidation, which in turn benefit low- rather than high-intensity exercise.

Clearly providing carbohydrates during recovery from exercise accelerates glycogen re-synthesis as does the degree of exercise-induced depletion [ 75 ]. It also appears that the environmental conditions may influence the rate of glycogen re-synthesis. When nine male individuals cycled for an hour to lower muscle glycogen and then consumed carbohydrate 1.

Recovery in a cool environment 7 °C does not slow the rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis [ 77 ]. In contrast, local cooling of skeletal muscle, a common recovery strategy in team sport, has been reported to have either no impact on or delay glycogen re-synthesis [ 78 ].

Clearly, further research is required. It has been suggested that adding protein to carbohydrate during recovery increases the rate of glycogen re-synthesis and so improves subsequent exercise capacity. The rationale behind this suggestion was that a protein-induced increase in plasma insulin level will increase the insulinogenic response to consuming carbohydrate leading to a greater re-synthesis of muscle glycogen [ 79 ].

Although a greater rate of post-exercise glycogen re-synthesis and storage has been reported following the ingestion of a carbohydrate-protein mixture compared with a carbohydrate-matched solution, there were no differences in plasma insulin responses [ 80 ].

Nevertheless, more recent studies suggest that ingesting sufficient carbohydrate ~1. The possibility of enhancing glycogen storage after competitive soccer matches by consuming meals high in whey protein and carbohydrate has recently been explored by Gunnarsson and colleagues [ 82 ].

After the h dietary intervention, there were no differences in muscle glycogen storage between the carbohydrate-whey protein and control groups [ 82 ]. While post-exercise carbohydrate-protein mixtures may not enhance glycogen storage or enhance subsequent exercise capacity, they promote skeletal muscle protein synthesis [ 83 ].

Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in the general work rate during training and competition. Adopting nutritional strategies to ensure that muscle glycogen stores are well stocked prior to training and competition helps delay fatigue.

There is now clear evidence for the following recommendations. Nicholas B. Tiller, Justin D. Roberts, … Laurent Bannock. Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al.

Physiology and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities. Roberts S, Trewartha G, Higgitt R, et al. The physical demands of elite English rugby union. J Sports Sci. Dziedzic C, Higham D. Performance nutritional guidelines for international rugby sevens tournaments. In J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.

Article CAS Google Scholar. Phillips SM, Sproule J, Turner AP. Carbohydrate ingestion during team games exercise: current knowledge and areas for future investigation.

Burke L, Hawley J, Wong S, et al. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Stellingwerff T, Maughan RJ, Burke LM. Baker L, Heaton L, Nuccio R, et al.

Dietitian-observed macronutrient intakes of young skill and team-sport athletes: adequacy of pre, during and postexercise nutrition. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability: part I. Factors contributing to fatigue. Cheetham ME, Boobis L, Brooks S, et al. Human muscle metabolism during sprint running in man. J Appl Physiol. CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

Balsom P, Gaitanos G, Soderlund K, et al. High intensity exercise and muscle glycogen availability in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. Parolin M, Chesley A, Matsos M, et al.

Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol. Yeo WK, McGee SL, Carey AL, et al. Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen. Exp Physiol. Spriet LL.

New insights into the interaction of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. Hawley J, Burke L, Phillips S, et al. Nutritional modulation of training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation.

Bartlett JD, Hawley JA, Morton JP. Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: too much of a good thing?

Eur J Sport Sci. Google Scholar. Nielsen J, Holmberg HC, Schroder HD, et al. Human skeletal muscle glycogen utilization in exhaustive exercise: role of subcellular localization and fibre type. J Physiol. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Gejl KD, Hvid LG, Frandsen U, et al.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Nybo L. CNS fatigue and prolonged exercise: effect of glucose supplementation. Backhouse SH, Ali A, Biddle SJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion.

Scand J Med Sci Sports. Leger L, Lambert J. A maximal multistage m shuttle run test to predict V O 2 max. Eur J Appl Physiol. Ramsbottom R, Brewer B, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake.

Br J Sports Med. Nicholas C, Nuttall F, Williams C. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: a field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer.

Welsh R, Davis M, Burke J, et al. Winnick J, Davis J, Welsh R, et al. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function. Afman G, Garside R, Dinan N, et al. Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.

Roberts S, Stokes K, Weston L, et al. The Bath University Rugby Shuttle Test BURST ; a pilot study. Ali A, Foskett A, Gant N. Measuring intermittent exercise performance using shuttle running.

Rollo I, Homewood G, Williams, C, Carter J, Goosey-Tolfrey V. The influence of carbohydrate mouth-rinse on self-selected intermittent running performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol. Russell M, Rees G, Benton D, et al.

An exercise protocol that replicates soccer match-play. Int J Sports Med. Currell K, Conway S, Jeukendrup A. Carbohydrate ingestion improves performance of a new reliable test of soccer performance.

PubMed Google Scholar. Ali A, Nicholas C, Brooks J, et al. The influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion on soccer skill performance. Article Google Scholar.

Kingsley M, Penas-Reiz C, Terry C, et al. Effects of carbohydrate-hydration strategies on glucose metabolism, sprint performance and hydration during a soccer match simulation in recreational players. J Sci Med Sport. Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Randers M, et al.

The Copenhagen Soccer Test: physiological response and fatigue development. Roberts S, Stokes K, Trewartha G, et al. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol.

Nicholas C, Williams C, Boobis L, et al. Effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on muscle glycogen utilisation during high intensity, intermittent shuttle running.

where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity dor punctuated by lower nitrition activity. Sprints teaj Sports nutrition for team sports 2—4 s Detoxification and cellular health Sports nutrition for team sports recovery between sprints is of SSports length. Energy production Sportz brief sprints is derived Purified active ingredients the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen anaerobic metabolism. Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball.

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Sports Nutrition

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Various factors may be involved in the cause of fatigue or sub-optimal performance in this context, with those related to nutrition dor summarized in Table 1. Table 1: Factors related to nutrition that could produce fatigue or sub-optimal performance in team Sprts.

Failure to drink enough fluid to adequately replace sweat losses during a game. Eco-friendly office supplies be exacerbated if player begins match in fluid deficit.

Repeated matches e. tournaments may increase risk spoets compounding dehydration from one match to the next. midfield players Spofts soccer, Australian Rules football.

tournament may increase S;orts of poor refuelling from fro match Boost Metabolism for Weight Loss the next. Hypoglycaemia and depletion of central nervous system fuels nutritoon glycogen.

Healthy fats in blood glucose concentrations due to tor carbohydrate availability. May occur in players with high-carbohydrate requirements see above tdam fail to consume carbohydrate during the match.

Prolonged or repeated intervals of high-intensity Mediterranean diet and digestion. Inadequate nuttrition of phosphocreatine system of power production.

GI disturbances, psorts vomiting Herbal remedies for menstrual cramps diarrhoea may directly reduce performance, as well as interfere Green tea for weight loss nutritional zports aimed at ror fluid and fuel status.

Inadequate replacement of sodium lost in nutritiln. There is anecdotal evidence that salt Sports nutrition for team sports may increase nutritkon risk of a specific type of whole-body s;orts cramp.

Tewm sweaters — individuals with high sweat spots and high sweat sodium concentrations who may acutely or chronically twam exchangeable sodium pools. Water intoxication Hyponatraemia low blood sodium. Excessive intake Hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity fluids can lead to hyponatraemia ranging from mild often asymptomatic to severe can be fatal.

Sportts Sports nutrition for team sports low sweat losses e. low activity or game time Spoorts overzealously consume fluid before and during a match.

Team sport sorts in positions that cover significant nutritkon within a game and who are nutgition to be fast and Spoets are generally aided by a lighter and lean physique.

Typically, the body njtrition levels of team sport players do not reach the low levels typical of endurance athletes such as runners, cyclists and triathletes. However, recent observations Quinoa and queso fresco recipe Sports nutrition for team sports team Sports nutrition for team sports have noted a reduction in body fat levels across players in general Duthie et al.

The requirement to wear lycra bodysuit uniforms in some team competitions has also contributed to an increased interest in loss of body fat among team players, although in this case it may be driven by aesthetic interests as much as by performance goals.

Table 2 summarizes the risk factors and strategies to manage unwanted gain of body fat among players in team sports. Recent research using tracer techniques has focused on the best feeding strategies following a bout of resistance exercise.

Various investigations have found that the maximal protein synthetic response is produced when resistance exercise is followed by the immediate intake of rapidly digested, highquality protein Tang et al.

Despite the belief that large amounts of protein are needed for gains from resistance exercise, a dose—response study has found that the maximal synthetic response to a training bout was achieved with the intake of 20 to 25 g of high-quality protein following exercise Moore et al.

Over a hour recovery window, regular feeding i. every 3 hours of a moderate quantity [20 g] of rapidly digested whey protein will continue to promote high rates of muscle protein synthesis following resistance training Areta et al. As a general rule, including ˜0.

Furthermore, a well-scheduled intake of high-quality protein foods is likely to restrict the loss of muscle mass and strength during recovery from injury Wall et al. Table 2: Risk factors and strategies to manage unwanted gain of body fat among players in team sports adapted from Burke, Strategies to address risk factor.

Substantial reduction in activity levels during the off-season or injury. Poor nutrition knowledge and practical skills leading to poor food choices, convenient low-quality ready-prepared meals and reliance on takeaway foods.

supermarket tours, cooking classes to teach domestic skills and knowledge of sound choices in restaurants and takeaway outlets. Chaotic meal patterns and displaced meals leading to poor awareness of actual food intake in a day.

Residential situation e. college, foster family exposing athlete to inappropriate food choices and food volume. Constant travel, leading to disturbance of home routine; game schedule of frequent matches where emphasis is on fuelling and recovery.

Regular excessive intake of alcohol, often in conjunction with inappropriate eating. There are few studies of the fuel demands of team sport players during training or competition, with the available evidence being focused on the match play of soccer players.

Significant muscle glycogen depletion has been shown to occur over the course of a football match Ekblom, ; Saltin, ; Krustrup et al. The current guidelines for carbohydrate intakes amended to suit a range of needs for team players are summarized in Table 3. As such, team sport athletes should be appropriately educated to manipulate their daily fuel intake to match the demands of training and competition.

Higher intakes may be required for younger team players to accommodate for growth and development, for leaner players with high daily energy requirements and for athletes striving to gain lean muscle mass to maintain a positive energy balance.

The lower-range carbohydrate intake recommendations are likely suitable for team players with high body fat levels given recommendations are expressed relative to body massfor athletes returning from injury or on a break where training loads are reduced, or for players striving to reduce body fat levels during a general conditioning phase of training.

The high-carbohydrate diet did not increase the ability of players to shoot or dribble. Several explanations are possible: muscle glycogen depletion may not impair the ability of the player to execute game skills; alternative fatigue mechanisms such as dehydration or increased lactate production may be causative factors in the reduction in skill performance; or the treadmill protocol employed failed to induce a degree of glycogen depletion or fatigue large enough to cause a significant fall in skill performance Abt et al.

Distance skated, number of shifts skated, amount of time skated within shifts, and skating speed were all increased in the carbohydrate-loaded players compared with the mixed diet group, with the differences being most marked in the third period Akermark et al.

There are few studies of actual glycogen restoration following real or simulated competition in team sport; these are limited to soccer and show divergent results with both success Zehnder et al.

Potential reasons for failure to refuel effectively after competition include interference with glycogen storage due to the presence of muscle damage arising from eccentric activities Zehnder et al. Current sports nutrition guidelines for everyday eating recommend that athletes consume adequate carbohydrate to meet the fuel requirements of their training programme, thus allowing training sessions to be undertaken with high-carbohydrate availability for review, see Burke, There are a number of potential ways to reduce carbohydrate availability for training, including doing two training sessions in close succession without opportunity for refuelling Hansen et al.

As reviewed by Burkeit should be pointed out that these strategies do not involve a low carbohydrate intake per se, or follow the currently topical low-carbohydrate high-fat diet.

Furthermore, they do not advocate low carbohydrate availability for all training sessions; indeed, studies report a reduction in selfchosen training intensity with " train low " sessions, which may account for a failure to achieve an overall improvement in performance Yeo et al.

Morton and colleagues Morton et al. Further work, including a more sophisticated approach to periodizing carbohydrate availability around different training sessions, is needed. These include inadequate fuel and fluid status; factors that can be addressed by the intake of appropriate drinks and sports products during a match.

Given the intermittent nature of team sports, they often offer frequent opportunities to ingest fluid and energy during breaks between periods, time-outs, substitutions or breaks in play see Burke, Drinking opportunities for selected team sports are summarized in Table 4. Fluids must be consumed at sidelines; players must not leave field.

Third-time breaks, time-outs, substitutions, pauses in play. Half-time break, substitutions, pauses in play. Trainers may run onto field with fluid bottles during pauses in play. Half-time break, pauses in play drink must be taken at sideline.

First to 3 sets, limited substitutions, time-outs. Sweat rates for team sport players are underpinned by the intermittent high-intensity work patterns, which are variable and unpredictable between and within team sports.

Even from match to match, the same player can experience different workloads and sweat losses due to different game demands and overall playing time. Fluid losses are also affected by variable climate and environmental conditions in which team sports are played e.

outdoor vs. indoor; on sunny beach vs. on ice and in some sports the requirement to wear protective clothing, including body pads and helmets.

Garth and Burke recently reviewed fluid intake practices of athletes participating in various sporting events. They noted that most of the available literature involves observations from football soccer games, and there is little information on practices on other team sports, such as rugby league, rugby union, cricket, basketball and beach volleyball for review, see Garth and Burke, Studies that have included a test of pre-game hydration status in conjunction with fluid balance testing found that a subset of players reported on match day with urine samples consistent with dehydration.

Overall, mean BM changes over a match ranged from ˜1 to 1. One study reported that the total volume of fluid consumed by players was not different when they were provided with sports drink and water compared with water alone.

In addition, mean heart rate, perceived exertion, serum aldosterone, osmolality, sodium and cortisol responses during the test were higher when no fluid was ingested. Nevertheless, Edwards and Noakes suggest that dehydration is only an outcome of complex physiological control operating a pacing plan and no single metabolic factor is causal of fatigue in elite soccer.

The subjects were able to continue running longer when fed the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. Ali et al. The carbohydrate-electrolyte solution enabled subjects with compromised glycogen stores to better maintain skill and sprint performance than when ingesting fluid alone.

: Sports nutrition for team sports

Sports Nutrition: How Much Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein Do I Need? - Unlock Food

To examine whether or not the same slowing of gastric emptying occurs during variable-speed running, Leiper and colleagues completed two studies in which games players ingested CHO-E solutions before and during exercise [ 60 , 61 ].

The same gastric emptying and timing was repeated while the soccer players performed two min periods of walking with the same min rest between the two activity periods.

Gastric emptying was slower during the first min period than during the walking-only trial, but during the second 15 min of the soccer game there was no statistical difference in the emptying rate. In total, the volume of fluid emptied from the stomach was less than during the same period while walking [ 60 ].

In the second running study, gastric emptying of a 6. The exercise intensities during the two min activity cycles of the LIST were higher and more closely controlled than those self-selected exercise intensities achieved during the five-a-side soccer game.

Nevertheless, the results were quite similar in that gastric emptying was slower during the first 15 min of exercise both for the CHO-E and the placebo solutions than while walking for the same period. However, during the second 15 min, gastric emptying of both solutions was similar during both the running and the walking trials with a trend for slightly faster emptying rates [ 61 ].

Whether or not this greater gastric emptying later in exercise suggests an acute adaptation to coping with large gastric volumes remains to be determined. Even with an intensity-induced reduction in gastric emptying, the available evidence does not suggest that team sport players should drink carbohydrate-free solutions.

On the contrary, there is sufficient evidence to support the ingestion of CHO-E solutions during prolonged, intermittent variable-speed running to improve endurance capacity [ 24 , 52 , 55 ].

However, even recognising the benefits of ingesting CHO-E solutions during intermittent variable-speed running, young athletes appear to not meet the recommended intakes [ 8 ]. Carbohydrate gels provide a convenient means of accessing this essential fuel during prolonged running and cycling.

However, there are only a few studies on the benefits of ingesting carbohydrate gels during variable-speed shuttle running. Of the two available studies, both report that ingesting carbohydrate gels improves endurance running capacity.

One of the studies reported that when games players ingested either an isotonic carbohydrate gel or an artificially sweetened orange placebo while performing the LIST protocol, their endurance capacity was greater during the gel 6. In the second study on intermittent shuttle running, Phillips and colleagues compared the performances of games players when they ingested either a carbohydrate gel or non-carbohydrate gel before and at min intervals while completing the LIST protocol [ 63 ].

They reported that during the carbohydrate-gel trial, the games players ran longer in Part B 4. Concerns about the potential delay in gastric emptying when ingesting carbohydrate gels before and during exercise are allayed by the performance benefits reported in the above studies.

In addition, it appears that the rate of oxidation of carbohydrate gels during min of submaximal cycling is no different to that after ingesting a Although carbohydrate-protein mixtures have mainly been considered as a means of accelerating post-exercise glycogen re-synthesis, Highton and colleagues examined their performance benefits during prolonged variable-speed shuttle running [ 65 ].

However there were no significant differences in the performance between trials. Exercise performance in the heat is generally poorer than during exercise in temperate climates.

Team sports are no exception, for example Mohr and colleagues have clearly shown that the performance of elite soccer players is significantly compromised when matches are played in the heat, i.

There are only a few studies on exercise performance during variable-speed running in hot and cooler environments. Using the same experimental design, Morris et al.

The m sprint speeds of the female athletes were also significantly slower in the heat, declining with test duration, which was not the case during exercise in the cooler environment.

Again, there was a high correlation between the rates of rise of the rectal temperatures of the athletes in the heat but it was less strong during exercise at the lower ambient temperature. In a follow-up study, Morris et al. Rectal and muscle temperatures were significantly higher at the point of fatigue after exercising in the heat.

Analyses of muscle biopsy samples taken from eight sportsmen before and after completing the LIST protocol under the two environmental conditions showed that the rate of glycogenolysis was greater in seven of the eight men in the heat.

However, glycogen levels were higher at fatigue after exercise in the heat than after exercise in the cooler environment [ 68 ]. Muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels were lower at exhaustion during exercise in the cooler environment, suggesting that reduced carbohydrate availability contributed to the onset of fatigue.

At exhaustion after exercise in the heat muscle, glycogen and blood glucose levels were significantly higher, suggesting that fatigue was largely a consequence of high body temperature rather than carbohydrate availability. Endurance capacity during exercise in the heat is improved when sufficient fluid is ingested [ 69 ], but does drinking CHO-E solution rather than water have added performance benefits?

This question was addressed in a three-trial design in which nine male games players ingested either a flavoured-water placebo, a taste-matched placebo, or a 6. Although ingesting the CHO-E solution resulted in greater metabolic changes, there were no differences in the performances during the three trials.

While the games players were accustomed to performing prolonged variable-speed running during training and competition, they were not acclimatised to exercising in the heat.

Clarke and colleagues attempted to tease out the benefits of delaying the rise in core temperature and CHO-E ingestion on performance in the heat [ 71 ]. The four-trial design included two trials in which the soccer players were pre-cooled before the test and two trials without pre-cooling.

In each pair of trials, the soccer players ingested, at min intervals, either a 6. Performance was assessed at the end of 90 min at the self-selected speed that the soccer players predicted was sustainable for 30 min but ran for only 3 min at this speed.

Thereafter, their high-intensity exercise capacity was determined during uphill treadmill running that was designed to lead to exhaustion in about 60 s [ 72 ].

They found that pre-cooling and CHO-E solution ingestion resulted in a superior performance at the self-selected running speed than CHO-E ingestion alone.

However, CHO-E solution ingestion, with or without pre-cooling, resulted in a longer running time, albeit quite short, during high-intensity exercise test than during the placebo trials.

The findings of this study provide evidence to support the conclusion that variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue.

Consuming carbohydrates immediately after exercise increases the repletion rate of muscle glycogen [ 73 ]. In competitive team sports, the relevant question is whether or not this nutritional strategy also returns performance during subsequent exercise.

Addressing this question, Nicholas and colleagues recruited games players who performed five blocks of the LIST 75 min followed by alternate m sprints with jogging recovery to fatigue, and 22 h later they attempted to repeat their performance [ 74 ].

When this study was repeated using energy- and macro-nutrient-matched HGI and LGI carbohydrate meals during the h recovery, there were no differences in performance of the games players [ 47 ].

This is not surprising because the advantage of pre-exercise LGI carbohydrate meals is the lower plasma insulin levels that allow greater rates of fat mobilisation and oxidation, which in turn benefit low- rather than high-intensity exercise.

Clearly providing carbohydrates during recovery from exercise accelerates glycogen re-synthesis as does the degree of exercise-induced depletion [ 75 ]. It also appears that the environmental conditions may influence the rate of glycogen re-synthesis.

When nine male individuals cycled for an hour to lower muscle glycogen and then consumed carbohydrate 1. Recovery in a cool environment 7 °C does not slow the rate of muscle glycogen re-synthesis [ 77 ]. In contrast, local cooling of skeletal muscle, a common recovery strategy in team sport, has been reported to have either no impact on or delay glycogen re-synthesis [ 78 ].

Clearly, further research is required. It has been suggested that adding protein to carbohydrate during recovery increases the rate of glycogen re-synthesis and so improves subsequent exercise capacity. The rationale behind this suggestion was that a protein-induced increase in plasma insulin level will increase the insulinogenic response to consuming carbohydrate leading to a greater re-synthesis of muscle glycogen [ 79 ].

Although a greater rate of post-exercise glycogen re-synthesis and storage has been reported following the ingestion of a carbohydrate-protein mixture compared with a carbohydrate-matched solution, there were no differences in plasma insulin responses [ 80 ]. Nevertheless, more recent studies suggest that ingesting sufficient carbohydrate ~1.

The possibility of enhancing glycogen storage after competitive soccer matches by consuming meals high in whey protein and carbohydrate has recently been explored by Gunnarsson and colleagues [ 82 ].

After the h dietary intervention, there were no differences in muscle glycogen storage between the carbohydrate-whey protein and control groups [ 82 ]. While post-exercise carbohydrate-protein mixtures may not enhance glycogen storage or enhance subsequent exercise capacity, they promote skeletal muscle protein synthesis [ 83 ].

Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in the general work rate during training and competition. Adopting nutritional strategies to ensure that muscle glycogen stores are well stocked prior to training and competition helps delay fatigue.

There is now clear evidence for the following recommendations. Nicholas B. Tiller, Justin D. Roberts, … Laurent Bannock. Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, et al.

Physiology and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities. Roberts S, Trewartha G, Higgitt R, et al. The physical demands of elite English rugby union.

J Sports Sci. Dziedzic C, Higham D. Performance nutritional guidelines for international rugby sevens tournaments. In J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Article CAS Google Scholar. Phillips SM, Sproule J, Turner AP. Carbohydrate ingestion during team games exercise: current knowledge and areas for future investigation.

Burke L, Hawley J, Wong S, et al. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Stellingwerff T, Maughan RJ, Burke LM. Baker L, Heaton L, Nuccio R, et al. Dietitian-observed macronutrient intakes of young skill and team-sport athletes: adequacy of pre, during and postexercise nutrition.

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Factors contributing to fatigue. Cheetham ME, Boobis L, Brooks S, et al. Human muscle metabolism during sprint running in man. J Appl Physiol.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Balsom P, Gaitanos G, Soderlund K, et al. High intensity exercise and muscle glycogen availability in humans.

Acta Physiol Scand. Parolin M, Chesley A, Matsos M, et al. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol. Yeo WK, McGee SL, Carey AL, et al. Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen.

Exp Physiol. Spriet LL. New insights into the interaction of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. Hawley J, Burke L, Phillips S, et al. Nutritional modulation of training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation.

Bartlett JD, Hawley JA, Morton JP. Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: too much of a good thing? Eur J Sport Sci. Google Scholar. Nielsen J, Holmberg HC, Schroder HD, et al.

Human skeletal muscle glycogen utilization in exhaustive exercise: role of subcellular localization and fibre type.

J Physiol. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Gejl KD, Hvid LG, Frandsen U, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Nybo L. CNS fatigue and prolonged exercise: effect of glucose supplementation.

Backhouse SH, Ali A, Biddle SJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Leger L, Lambert J. A maximal multistage m shuttle run test to predict V O 2 max.

Eur J Appl Physiol. Ramsbottom R, Brewer B, Williams C. A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Br J Sports Med. Nicholas C, Nuttall F, Williams C. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: a field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer.

Welsh R, Davis M, Burke J, et al. Winnick J, Davis J, Welsh R, et al. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function. Afman G, Garside R, Dinan N, et al. Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.

Roberts S, Stokes K, Weston L, et al. The Bath University Rugby Shuttle Test BURST ; a pilot study. Ali A, Foskett A, Gant N. Measuring intermittent exercise performance using shuttle running. Rollo I, Homewood G, Williams, C, Carter J, Goosey-Tolfrey V.

The influence of carbohydrate mouth-rinse on self-selected intermittent running performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol. Russell M, Rees G, Benton D, et al.

An exercise protocol that replicates soccer match-play. Int J Sports Med. Currell K, Conway S, Jeukendrup A. Carbohydrate ingestion improves performance of a new reliable test of soccer performance.

PubMed Google Scholar. Ali A, Nicholas C, Brooks J, et al. The influence of carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion on soccer skill performance.

Article Google Scholar. Kingsley M, Penas-Reiz C, Terry C, et al. Effects of carbohydrate-hydration strategies on glucose metabolism, sprint performance and hydration during a soccer match simulation in recreational players. J Sci Med Sport. Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Randers M, et al.

The Copenhagen Soccer Test: physiological response and fatigue development. Roberts S, Stokes K, Trewartha G, et al. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol. Nicholas C, Williams C, Boobis L, et al.

Effect of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on muscle glycogen utilisation during high intensity, intermittent shuttle running. Med Sci Sport Exerc. Saltin B. Metabolic fundamentals of exercise. Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P.

Physical and metabolic demands of training and match play in the elite player. Sherman W, Costill D, Fink W, et al. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance.

Balsom P, Wood K, Olsson P, et al. Carbohydrate intake and multiple sprint sports: with special reference to football soccer. Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G, et al.

Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. Wee S, Williams C, Tsintzas K, et al. Ingestion of a high-glycemic index meal increases muscle glycogen storage at rest but augments its utilization during subsequent exercise.

Chryssanthopoulos C, Williams C, Nowitz A, et al. Skeletal muscle glycogen concentration and metabolic responses following a high glycaemic carbohydrate breakfast. Wu C-L, Williams C. A low glycemic index meal before exercise improves running capacity in man. CAS Google Scholar. Hulton AT, Gregson W, Maclaren D, et al.

Effects of GI meals on intermittent exercise. Bennett CB, Chilibeck PD, Barss T, et al. Metabolism and performance during extended high-intensity intermittent exercise after consumption of low- and high-glycaemic index pre-exercise meals.

Br J Nutr. Erith S, Williams C, Stevenson E, et al. The effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

Richter EA, Hargreaves M. Exercise, GLUT4 and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Physiol Rev. Jensen TE, Richter EA. Regulation of glucose and glycogen metabolism during and after exercise.

Tsintzas K, Williams C. Human muscle glycogen metabolism during exercise: effect of carbohydrate supplementation. Shi X, Gisolfi C. Fluid intake and intermittent exercise.

Nicholas C, Williams C, Lakomy H, et al. Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance capacity during intermittent, high intensity shuttle running.

Davis J, Welsh R, Alderson N. Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue.

Chryssanthopoulos C, Hennessy L, Williams C. The influence of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on endurance running capacity. Phillips SM, Turner AP, Sanderson MF, et al.

Beverage carbohydrate concentration influences the intermittent endurance capacity of adolescent team games players during prolonged intermittent running. Foskett A, Williams C, Boobis L, et al. Carbohydrate availability and muscle energy metabolism during intermittent running.

Matsui T, Soya S, Okamoto M, et al. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise. PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Nybo L, Moller K, Pedersen B, et al. Association between fatigue and failure to preserve cerebral energy turnover during prolonged exercise.

Leiper J, Broad N, Maughan R. Effect of intermittent high intensity exercise on gastric emptying in man. Leiper J, Prentice A, Wrightson C, et al. Gastric emptying of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink during a soccer match. Leiper J, Nicholas C, Ali A, et al. The effect of intermittent high intensity running on gastric emptying of fluids in man.

Patterson S, Gray S. Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.

Pfeiffer B, Stellingwerff T, Zaltas E, et al. CHO oxidation from a CHO gel compared with a drink during exercise. Highton J, Twist C, Lamb K, et al. Carbohydrate-protein coingestion improves multiple-sprint running performance.

Mohr M, Mujika I, Santisteban J, et al. Examination of fatigue development in elite soccer in a hot environment: a multi-experimental approach. Morris J, Nevill M, Lakomy H, et al. Effect of a hot environment on performance of prolonged, intermittent, high intensity shuttle running.

Morris J, Nevill M, Boobis L, et al. Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged intermittent high intensity running in air temperatures of 33 °C and 17 °C. J Sport Med.

Shirreffs S. Hydration: special issues for playing football in warm and hot environments. Morris J, Nevill M, Thompson D, et al.

The influence of a 6. Clarke N, Maclaren D, Reilly T, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat.

Cunningham D, Faulkner J. The effect of training on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during a short exhaustive run. Ivy J. Glycogen resynthesis after exercise: effect of carbohydrate intake. Nicholas C, Green P, Hawkins R, et al. Carbohydrate intake and recovery of intermittent running capacity.

Int J Sport Nutr. Price T, Laurent D, Petersen K, et al. Glycogen loading alters muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise. Naperalsky M, Ruby B, Slivka D. Environmental temperature and glycogen resynthesis. Slivka D, Heesch M, Dumke C, et al. Effects of post-exercise recovery in a cold environment on muscle glycogen, PGC-1alpha, and downstream transcription factors.

Tucker TJ, Slivka DR, Cuddy JS, et al. Effect of local cold application on glycogen recovery. J Sports Med Phys Fit. Zawadzki K, Yaspelkis B III, Ivy J.

Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Ivy J, Goforth H Jr, Damon B, et al. Early post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Despite the belief that large amounts of protein are needed for gains from resistance exercise, a dose—response study has found that the maximal synthetic response to a training bout was achieved with the intake of 20 to 25 g of high-quality protein following exercise Moore et al.

Over a hour recovery window, regular feeding i. every 3 hours of a moderate quantity [20 g] of rapidly digested whey protein will continue to promote high rates of muscle protein synthesis following resistance training Areta et al.

As a general rule, including ˜0. Furthermore, a well-scheduled intake of high-quality protein foods is likely to restrict the loss of muscle mass and strength during recovery from injury Wall et al. Table 2: Risk factors and strategies to manage unwanted gain of body fat among players in team sports adapted from Burke, Strategies to address risk factor.

Substantial reduction in activity levels during the off-season or injury. Poor nutrition knowledge and practical skills leading to poor food choices, convenient low-quality ready-prepared meals and reliance on takeaway foods.

supermarket tours, cooking classes to teach domestic skills and knowledge of sound choices in restaurants and takeaway outlets. Chaotic meal patterns and displaced meals leading to poor awareness of actual food intake in a day.

Residential situation e. college, foster family exposing athlete to inappropriate food choices and food volume. Constant travel, leading to disturbance of home routine; game schedule of frequent matches where emphasis is on fuelling and recovery.

Regular excessive intake of alcohol, often in conjunction with inappropriate eating. There are few studies of the fuel demands of team sport players during training or competition, with the available evidence being focused on the match play of soccer players.

Significant muscle glycogen depletion has been shown to occur over the course of a football match Ekblom, ; Saltin, ; Krustrup et al. The current guidelines for carbohydrate intakes amended to suit a range of needs for team players are summarized in Table 3.

As such, team sport athletes should be appropriately educated to manipulate their daily fuel intake to match the demands of training and competition. Higher intakes may be required for younger team players to accommodate for growth and development, for leaner players with high daily energy requirements and for athletes striving to gain lean muscle mass to maintain a positive energy balance.

The lower-range carbohydrate intake recommendations are likely suitable for team players with high body fat levels given recommendations are expressed relative to body mass , for athletes returning from injury or on a break where training loads are reduced, or for players striving to reduce body fat levels during a general conditioning phase of training.

The high-carbohydrate diet did not increase the ability of players to shoot or dribble. Several explanations are possible: muscle glycogen depletion may not impair the ability of the player to execute game skills; alternative fatigue mechanisms such as dehydration or increased lactate production may be causative factors in the reduction in skill performance; or the treadmill protocol employed failed to induce a degree of glycogen depletion or fatigue large enough to cause a significant fall in skill performance Abt et al.

Distance skated, number of shifts skated, amount of time skated within shifts, and skating speed were all increased in the carbohydrate-loaded players compared with the mixed diet group, with the differences being most marked in the third period Akermark et al. There are few studies of actual glycogen restoration following real or simulated competition in team sport; these are limited to soccer and show divergent results with both success Zehnder et al.

Potential reasons for failure to refuel effectively after competition include interference with glycogen storage due to the presence of muscle damage arising from eccentric activities Zehnder et al. Current sports nutrition guidelines for everyday eating recommend that athletes consume adequate carbohydrate to meet the fuel requirements of their training programme, thus allowing training sessions to be undertaken with high-carbohydrate availability for review, see Burke, There are a number of potential ways to reduce carbohydrate availability for training, including doing two training sessions in close succession without opportunity for refuelling Hansen et al.

As reviewed by Burke , it should be pointed out that these strategies do not involve a low carbohydrate intake per se, or follow the currently topical low-carbohydrate high-fat diet.

Furthermore, they do not advocate low carbohydrate availability for all training sessions; indeed, studies report a reduction in selfchosen training intensity with " train low " sessions, which may account for a failure to achieve an overall improvement in performance Yeo et al.

Morton and colleagues Morton et al. Further work, including a more sophisticated approach to periodizing carbohydrate availability around different training sessions, is needed.

These include inadequate fuel and fluid status; factors that can be addressed by the intake of appropriate drinks and sports products during a match. Given the intermittent nature of team sports, they often offer frequent opportunities to ingest fluid and energy during breaks between periods, time-outs, substitutions or breaks in play see Burke, Drinking opportunities for selected team sports are summarized in Table 4.

Fluids must be consumed at sidelines; players must not leave field. Third-time breaks, time-outs, substitutions, pauses in play. Half-time break, substitutions, pauses in play. Trainers may run onto field with fluid bottles during pauses in play.

Half-time break, pauses in play drink must be taken at sideline. First to 3 sets, limited substitutions, time-outs. Sweat rates for team sport players are underpinned by the intermittent high-intensity work patterns, which are variable and unpredictable between and within team sports.

Even from match to match, the same player can experience different workloads and sweat losses due to different game demands and overall playing time.

Fluid losses are also affected by variable climate and environmental conditions in which team sports are played e.

outdoor vs. indoor; on sunny beach vs. on ice and in some sports the requirement to wear protective clothing, including body pads and helmets.

Garth and Burke recently reviewed fluid intake practices of athletes participating in various sporting events. They noted that most of the available literature involves observations from football soccer games, and there is little information on practices on other team sports, such as rugby league, rugby union, cricket, basketball and beach volleyball for review, see Garth and Burke, Studies that have included a test of pre-game hydration status in conjunction with fluid balance testing found that a subset of players reported on match day with urine samples consistent with dehydration.

Overall, mean BM changes over a match ranged from ˜1 to 1. One study reported that the total volume of fluid consumed by players was not different when they were provided with sports drink and water compared with water alone.

In addition, mean heart rate, perceived exertion, serum aldosterone, osmolality, sodium and cortisol responses during the test were higher when no fluid was ingested.

Nevertheless, Edwards and Noakes suggest that dehydration is only an outcome of complex physiological control operating a pacing plan and no single metabolic factor is causal of fatigue in elite soccer. The subjects were able to continue running longer when fed the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

Ali et al. The carbohydrate-electrolyte solution enabled subjects with compromised glycogen stores to better maintain skill and sprint performance than when ingesting fluid alone. Linseman et al. Skating speed and puck handling performance during the game, as well as post-game skating speed were improved with ingestion of the carbohydrate-electroltye solution.

Their results showed that perceived activation was lower without carbohydrate ingestion during the last 30 min of exercise, and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations. In the carbohydrate trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 minutes of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial.

These authors concluded that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise elicits an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance. On a third trial, the same volume of carbohydrate-electrolyte was consumed in smaller volumes at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes.

This manipulation of the timing and volume of ingestion elicited similar metabolic responses without affecting exercise performance. However, consuming fluid in small volumes reduced the sensation of gut fullness Clarke et al. Indeed, gastric emptying of liquids is slowed during brief intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with rest or steady-state moderate exercise Leiper et al.

These products are summarized in Table 5. Among the proposed nutritional ergogenic supplements, creatine Cr is the one that has been investigated the most in relation with team sports, given that its purported ergogenic action i.

enhanced recovery of the phosphocreatine power system matches the activity profilent of team sports. Various investigations indicate that both acute and chronic Cr supplementation may contribute to improved training and competition performance in team sports e. Ahmun et al.

Table 5: Sports foods and dietary supplements that are of likely benefit to team sport players adapted from Burke, However, conflicting results are not lacking in the literature Paton et al.

Beta-alanine supplementation, to increase muscle stores of the intracellular buffer carnosine, may also provide benefits and requires further study using protocols suited to team sports Derave et al.

Colostrum supplementation has conflicting reports with respect to its effects on recovery and illness Shing et al. Beetroot juice, a source of nitrate, may enhance sports performance by mechanisms including an increase in exercise economy Wylie et al.

Holway and Spriet summarized the dietary intake studies of team sport athletes published over the past 30 years. It is difficult to make broad generalizations as data are skewed to certain team sports football, basketball and volleyball with little or no contemporary information reported on others e.

cricket, rugby union, water polo, hockey. However, weighted averages for energy intake were Relative to body mass, male team sport athletes reported eating an average of 5. This is less that reported for athletes engaged in individual team sports Burke, Not surprisingly, larger athletes were reported to consume more energy and pre-season intakes were greater than in-season intakes, perhaps to accommodate the additional conditioning work incorporated into the preparatory training phase.

Some evidence suggests the dietary quality of team sport athletes is less than what is reported for athletes involved in individual sports Clark et al. For instance, alcohol intakes of team sport athletes appear higher than other athlete groups Van Erp-Baart et al.

The team culture of celebrating a win and commiserating a loss often leads to excessive consumption of alcohol during the post-game period. Implications of such behaviour include a decrease in muscle protein synthesis Parr et al. These issues need to be considered by sports nutrition professionals consulting with team sport athletes and highlight the need for a thorough dietary review of individual player habits and the team culture.

Implementation of appropriate systems including a performance kitchen can capture the imagination of players around key nutrition principles, while enhancing team culture. Akermark C, Jacobs I, Rasmusson M, Karlsson J. Ali A, Williams C, Nicholas CW, Foskett A.

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Topic Editors Bryan Nutriyion Sports nutrition for team sports min. Consider consuming 30—60 g Slorts a simple nutrittion source within 30 Sports nutrition for team sports of exercising. The effect of high carbohydrate fr with different glycemic indices on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Richter EA, Hargreaves M. Suggested Reading Changes in Tissue Glycogen of Recovering Asphyxiated Newborn Monkeys: Glycogen Response of Brain, Heart and Other Organs to Total Asphyxia Biologia Neonatorum September,
Nutrition and hydration for team sport athletes - Sanford Health News Table 1 Factors related to nutrition that could produce fatigue or suboptimal performance in team sports. Carbohydrate feedings during team sport exercise preserve physical and CNS function. No single bodily system that is required to support the demands of team sport activity appears to be exclusively influenced by carbohydrate ingestion. Furthermore, they do not advocate low carbohydrate availability for all training sessions; indeed, studies report a reduction in selfchosen training intensity with " train low " sessions, which may account for a failure to achieve an overall improvement in performance Yeo et al. Acknowledgments This article was published in a supplement supported by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute GSSI. What is the effect of alcohol on recovery? Iñigo Mujika , Louise M Burke and Gregory R Cox.
Sports nutrition for team sports Nytrition sports are tam Sports nutrition for team sports intermittent high-intensity activity patterns but the psorts characteristics How to Start / Fasting between and nutritiom codes, and from one game to nutritiom next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact Sports nutrition for team sports Onion harvesting methods, performance in nitrition sports is often influenced by nutritional preparation. Mutrition issues include achieving sporgs levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of daily training. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to two to three games over a weekend road trip in others, with a tournament fixture usually involving one to three days between matches.

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