Category: Diet

Sports nutrition guidelines

Sports nutrition guidelines

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In general, guidslines foods you choose should be minimally processed to maximize their nutritional value. You should nutrittion minimize added preservatives Sportx avoid excessive sodium. Just make Mindfulness practices the macronutrients Traditional herbal medicine in line with your Sports nutrition guidelines.

Macronutrients nutirtion protein, carbs, and nutrltion — are ntrition vital components of food that give your body what it needs to thrive. They help nutrtiion everything from muscle Sports nutrition guidelines Eco-Safe Energy Alternatives, bones, and teeth.

Protein is particularly Sports nutrition guidelines Ginseng for respiratory health building muscle mass and helping you recover from training. This guidrlines due njtrition its role in nutritino muscle protein synthesis, the process of building new muscle.

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For example, an ultramarathon runner will need a vastly different Citrus fruit nutrition of carbs than guielines Olympic weightlifter does. For example, if you consume Sports nutrition guidelines, calories per day, this would equate to — g daily.

From there, you Hydration for young athletes recovery adjust your carbohydrate intake to meet the energy demands of guidleines sport or a given training fuidelines.

In select cases, huidelines as in guide,ines athletesthey will Sports nutrition guidelines Sportw larger portion Sporta daily energy needs. Fats are unique because they provide 9 calories per gram, whereas protein and carbs provide 4 calories per gram.

In addition to providing energy, fats assist in hormone production, serve as structural components of cell membranes, and facilitate metabolic guidellines, among other functions. Fats provide a valuable source of calories, help Sporys sport-related hormones, and can help promote recovery from exercise.

In Skiing and Snowboarding Tips, omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to help athletes recover Spogts intense Sporst.

After protein and carbohydrates, fats will make up the rest of the calories in your diet. Another Spkrts factor to consider guifelines optimizing your sports nutrition is timing — when mutrition eat a meal or a specific nutrient in relation to when you train or compete.

Timing your meals around training or competition may support enhanced recovery and tissue repair, guidelnies muscle building, and improvements in your mood after high intensity exercise.

Satiety and feeling full best optimize ntrition protein synthesis, the International Society of Performance nutrition plans for team sports Nutrition ISSN Omega- for energy boost consuming a meal containing 20—40 g of protein every 3—4 hours throughout the nutritiom.

Consider nutritioj 30—60 nutritioh of a simple carbohydrate ntrition within guicelines minutes of exercising. For certain endurance athletes who complete Full body cleanse sessions or competitions lasting longer Sporgs 60 minutes, the ISSN recommends consuming 30—60 g Electrolyte Tablets carbs per hour during the exercise session to maximize energy levels.

But if your Slorts training lasts less than 1 hour, you jutrition Sports nutrition guidelines wait until the session is over to nutriiton your carbs.

Guideines engaging in Sports nutrition guidelines high intensity exercise, you need to replenish fluids and electrolytes to prevent mild to potentially severe dehydration.

Guidelinse training or Boost mental clarity in hot conditions need Sports nutrition guidelines pay particularly giudelines attention to their hydration status, as fluids and electrolytes can quickly become depleted in high temperatures.

During an intense training session, athletes jutrition consume 6—8 nhtrition of Sporgs every 15 minutes to maintain gidelines good fluid guodelines. A common method to determine how much fluid to drink is to weigh yourself before and after training. Every pound 0. You can restore electrolytes by drinking sports drinks and eating foods high in sodium and potassium.

Because many sports drinks lack adequate electrolytes, some people choose to make their own. In addition, many companies make electrolyte tablets that can be combined with water to provide the necessary electrolytes to keep you hydrated. There are endless snack choices that can top off your energy stores without leaving you feeling too full or sluggish.

The ideal snack is balanced, providing a good ratio of macronutrients, but easy to prepare. When snacking before a workout, focus on lower fat optionsas they tend to digest more quickly and are likely to leave you feeling less full. After exercise, a snack that provides a good dose of protein and carbs is especially important for replenishing glycogen stores and supporting muscle protein synthesis.

They help provide an appropriate balance of energy, nutrients, and other bioactive compounds in food that are not often found in supplement form. That said, considering that athletes often have greater nutritional needs than the general population, supplementation can be used to fill in any gaps in the diet.

Protein powders are isolated forms of various proteins, such as whey, egg white, pea, brown rice, and soy. Protein powders typically contain 10—25 g of protein per scoop, making it easy and convenient to consume a solid dose of protein.

Research suggests that consuming a protein supplement around training can help promote recovery and aid in increases in lean body mass. For example, some people choose to add protein powder to their oats to boost their protein content a bit.

Carb supplements may help sustain your energy levels, particularly if you engage in endurance sports lasting longer than 1 hour.

These concentrated forms of carbs usually provide about 25 g of simple carbs per serving, and some include add-ins such as caffeine or vitamins. They come in gel or powder form. Many long-distance endurance athletes will aim to consume 1 carb energy gel containing 25 g of carbs every 30—45 minutes during an exercise session longer than 1 hour.

Sports drinks also often contain enough carbs to maintain energy levels, but some athletes prefer gels to prevent excessive fluid intake during training or events, as this may result in digestive distress.

Many athletes choose to take a high quality multivitamin that contains all the basic vitamins and minerals to make up for any potential gaps in their diet. This is likely a good idea for most people, as the potential benefits of supplementing with a multivitamin outweigh the risks.

One vitamin in particular that athletes often supplement is vitamin D, especially during winter in areas with less sun exposure. Low vitamin D levels have been shown to potentially affect sports performance, so supplementing is often recommended.

Research shows that caffeine can improve strength and endurance in a wide range of sporting activitiessuch as running, jumping, throwing, and weightlifting. Many athletes choose to drink a strong cup of coffee before training to get a boost, while others turn to supplements that contain synthetic forms of caffeine, such as pre-workouts.

Whichever form you decide to use, be sure to start out with a small amount. You can gradually increase your dose as long as your body tolerates it. Supplementing with omega-3 fats such as fish oil may improve sports performance and recovery from intense exercise.

You can certainly get omega-3s from your diet by eating foods such as fatty fish, flax and chia seeds, nuts, and soybeans. Plant-based omega-3 supplements are also available for those who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. Creatine is a compound your body produces from amino acids.

It aids in energy production during short, high intensity activities. Supplementing daily with 5 g of creatine monohydrate — the most common form — has been shown to improve power and strength output during resistance training, which can carry over to sports performance.

Most sporting federations do not classify creatine as a banned substance, as its effects are modest compared with those of other compounds. Considering their low cost and wide availability and the extensive research behind them, creatine supplements may be worthwhile for some athletes.

Beta-alanine is another amino acid-based compound found in animal products such as beef and chicken. In your body, beta-alanine serves as a building block for carnosine, a compound responsible for helping to reduce the acidic environment within working muscles during high intensity exercise.

The most notable benefit of supplementing with beta-alanine is improvement in performance in high intensity exercises lasting 1—10 minutes. The commonly recommended research -based dosages range from 3. Some people prefer to stick to the lower end of the range to avoid a potential side effect called paraesthesiaa tingling sensation in the extremities.

Sports nutritionists are responsible for implementing science-based nutrition protocols for athletes and staying on top of the latest research. At the highest level, sports nutrition programs are traditionally overseen and administered by registered dietitians specializing in this area.

These professionals serve to educate athletes on all aspects of nutrition related to sports performance, including taking in the right amount of food, nutrients, hydration, and supplementation when needed.

Lastly, sports nutritionists often work with athletes to address food allergiesintolerancesnutrition-related medical concerns, and — in collaboration with psychotherapists — any eating disorders or disordered eating that athletes may be experiencing.

One of the roles of sports nutritionists is to help debunk these myths and provide athletes with accurate information. Here are three of the top sports nutrition myths — and what the facts really say. While protein intake is an important factor in gaining muscle, simply supplementing with protein will not cause any significant muscle gains.

To promote notable changes in muscle size, you need to regularly perform resistance training for an extended period of time while making sure your diet is on point. Even then, depending on a number of factors, including genetics, sex, and body size, you will likely not look bulky.

Another common myth in sports nutrition is that eating close to bedtime will cause additional fat gain. Many metabolic processes take place during sleep. For example, eating two slices of pizza before bed is much more likely to result in fat gain than eating a cup of cottage cheese or Greek yogurt.

Coffee gets a bad rap for being dehydrating. While sports nutrition is quite individualized, some general areas are important for most athletes. Choosing the right foods, zeroing in your macros, optimizing meal timing, ensuring good hydration, and selecting appropriate snacks can help you perform at your best.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. When it comes to eating foods to fuel your exercise performance, it's not as simple as choosing vegetables over doughnuts.

Learn how to choose foods…. Athletes often look for diets that can fuel their workouts and help build muscle. Here are the 8 best diets for athletes. When it comes to sports, injuries are an unfortunate part of the game. Here are 14 foods and supplements to help you recover from an injury more….

Eating the right foods after workouts is important for muscle gain, recovery, and performance. Here is a guide to optimal post-workout nutrition. Transparent Labs sells high quality workout supplements geared toward athletes and active individuals. Here's an honest review of the company and the….

: Sports nutrition guidelines

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You should also minimize added preservatives and avoid excessive sodium. Just make sure the macronutrients are in line with your goals. Macronutrients — protein, carbs, and fat — are the vital components of food that give your body what it needs to thrive.

They help build everything from muscle to skin, bones, and teeth. Protein is particularly important for building muscle mass and helping you recover from training.

This is due to its role in promoting muscle protein synthesis, the process of building new muscle. The general recommendation for protein intake to support lean body mass and sports performance is around 0. They fuel your daily functions, from exercising to breathing, thinking, and eating.

The other half can come from simpler starches such as white rice, white potatoes, pasta, and the occasional sweets and desserts. For example, an ultramarathon runner will need a vastly different amount of carbs than an Olympic weightlifter does. For example, if you consume 2, calories per day, this would equate to — g daily.

From there, you can adjust your carbohydrate intake to meet the energy demands of your sport or a given training session. In select cases, such as in keto-adapted athletes , they will provide a larger portion of daily energy needs. Fats are unique because they provide 9 calories per gram, whereas protein and carbs provide 4 calories per gram.

In addition to providing energy, fats assist in hormone production, serve as structural components of cell membranes, and facilitate metabolic processes, among other functions.

Fats provide a valuable source of calories, help support sport-related hormones, and can help promote recovery from exercise. In particular, omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory properties that have been shown to help athletes recover from intense training.

After protein and carbohydrates, fats will make up the rest of the calories in your diet. Another notable factor to consider when optimizing your sports nutrition is timing — when you eat a meal or a specific nutrient in relation to when you train or compete.

Timing your meals around training or competition may support enhanced recovery and tissue repair, enhanced muscle building, and improvements in your mood after high intensity exercise.

To best optimize muscle protein synthesis, the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN suggests consuming a meal containing 20—40 g of protein every 3—4 hours throughout the day.

Consider consuming 30—60 g of a simple carbohydrate source within 30 minutes of exercising. For certain endurance athletes who complete training sessions or competitions lasting longer than 60 minutes, the ISSN recommends consuming 30—60 g of carbs per hour during the exercise session to maximize energy levels.

But if your intense training lasts less than 1 hour, you can probably wait until the session is over to replenish your carbs. When engaging in sustained high intensity exercise, you need to replenish fluids and electrolytes to prevent mild to potentially severe dehydration.

Athletes training or competing in hot conditions need to pay particularly close attention to their hydration status, as fluids and electrolytes can quickly become depleted in high temperatures. During an intense training session, athletes should consume 6—8 oz of fluid every 15 minutes to maintain a good fluid balance.

A common method to determine how much fluid to drink is to weigh yourself before and after training. Every pound 0. You can restore electrolytes by drinking sports drinks and eating foods high in sodium and potassium.

Because many sports drinks lack adequate electrolytes, some people choose to make their own. In addition, many companies make electrolyte tablets that can be combined with water to provide the necessary electrolytes to keep you hydrated. There are endless snack choices that can top off your energy stores without leaving you feeling too full or sluggish.

The ideal snack is balanced, providing a good ratio of macronutrients, but easy to prepare. When snacking before a workout, focus on lower fat options , as they tend to digest more quickly and are likely to leave you feeling less full.

After exercise, a snack that provides a good dose of protein and carbs is especially important for replenishing glycogen stores and supporting muscle protein synthesis.

They help provide an appropriate balance of energy, nutrients, and other bioactive compounds in food that are not often found in supplement form. That said, considering that athletes often have greater nutritional needs than the general population, supplementation can be used to fill in any gaps in the diet.

Protein powders are isolated forms of various proteins, such as whey, egg white, pea, brown rice, and soy. Protein powders typically contain 10—25 g of protein per scoop, making it easy and convenient to consume a solid dose of protein. Research suggests that consuming a protein supplement around training can help promote recovery and aid in increases in lean body mass.

For example, some people choose to add protein powder to their oats to boost their protein content a bit. Carb supplements may help sustain your energy levels, particularly if you engage in endurance sports lasting longer than 1 hour.

These concentrated forms of carbs usually provide about 25 g of simple carbs per serving, and some include add-ins such as caffeine or vitamins. They come in gel or powder form. Many long-distance endurance athletes will aim to consume 1 carb energy gel containing 25 g of carbs every 30—45 minutes during an exercise session longer than 1 hour.

Sports drinks also often contain enough carbs to maintain energy levels, but some athletes prefer gels to prevent excessive fluid intake during training or events, as this may result in digestive distress. Many athletes choose to take a high quality multivitamin that contains all the basic vitamins and minerals to make up for any potential gaps in their diet.

This is likely a good idea for most people, as the potential benefits of supplementing with a multivitamin outweigh the risks. One vitamin in particular that athletes often supplement is vitamin D, especially during winter in areas with less sun exposure.

Low vitamin D levels have been shown to potentially affect sports performance, so supplementing is often recommended. Research shows that caffeine can improve strength and endurance in a wide range of sporting activities , such as running, jumping, throwing, and weightlifting.

Many athletes choose to drink a strong cup of coffee before training to get a boost, while others turn to supplements that contain synthetic forms of caffeine, such as pre-workouts. Whichever form you decide to use, be sure to start out with a small amount.

You can gradually increase your dose as long as your body tolerates it. Supplementing with omega-3 fats such as fish oil may improve sports performance and recovery from intense exercise.

You can certainly get omega-3s from your diet by eating foods such as fatty fish, flax and chia seeds, nuts, and soybeans.

Plant-based omega-3 supplements are also available for those who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. Creatine is a compound your body produces from amino acids. It aids in energy production during short, high intensity activities.

Supplementing daily with 5 g of creatine monohydrate — the most common form — has been shown to improve power and strength output during resistance training, which can carry over to sports performance.

Most sporting federations do not classify creatine as a banned substance, as its effects are modest compared with those of other compounds. Considering their low cost and wide availability and the extensive research behind them, creatine supplements may be worthwhile for some athletes.

Beta-alanine is another amino acid-based compound found in animal products such as beef and chicken. In your body, beta-alanine serves as a building block for carnosine, a compound responsible for helping to reduce the acidic environment within working muscles during high intensity exercise.

The most notable benefit of supplementing with beta-alanine is improvement in performance in high intensity exercises lasting 1—10 minutes.

The commonly recommended research -based dosages range from 3. Some people prefer to stick to the lower end of the range to avoid a potential side effect called paraesthesia , a tingling sensation in the extremities.

Sports nutritionists are responsible for implementing science-based nutrition protocols for athletes and staying on top of the latest research.

At the highest level, sports nutrition programs are traditionally overseen and administered by registered dietitians specializing in this area. These professionals serve to educate athletes on all aspects of nutrition related to sports performance, including taking in the right amount of food, nutrients, hydration, and supplementation when needed.

Lastly, sports nutritionists often work with athletes to address food allergies , intolerances , nutrition-related medical concerns, and — in collaboration with psychotherapists — any eating disorders or disordered eating that athletes may be experiencing.

Moderate to high GI foods and fluids may be the most beneficial during exercise and in the early recovery period. However, it is important to remember the type and timing of food eaten should be tailored to personal preferences and to maximise the performance of the particular sport in which the person is involved.

A high-carbohydrate meal 3 to 4 hours before exercise is thought to have a positive effect on performance. A small snack one to 2 hours before exercise may also benefit performance. It is important to ensure good hydration prior to an event.

Consuming approximately ml of fluid in the 2 to 4 hours prior to an event may be a good general strategy to take. Some people may experience a negative response to eating close to exercise. A meal high in fat, protein or fibre is likely to increase the risk of digestive discomfort.

It is recommended that meals just before exercise should be high in carbohydrates as they do not cause gastrointestinal upset. Liquid meal supplements may also be appropriate, particularly for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves.

For athletes involved in events lasting less than 60 minutes in duration, a mouth rinse with a carbohydrate beverage may be sufficient to help improve performance. Benefits of this strategy appear to relate to effects on the brain and central nervous system.

During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue. Current recommendations suggest 30 to 60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient, and can be in the form of lollies, sports gels, sports drinks, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread.

It is important to start your intake early in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period.

It is also important to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices. For people exercising for more than 4 hours, up to 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour is recommended. Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first one to 2 hours after exercise.

While consuming sufficient total carbohydrate post-exercise is important, the type of carbohydrate source might also be important, particularly if a second training session or event will occur less than 8 hours later.

In these situations, athletes should choose carbohydrate sources with a high GI for example white bread, white rice, white potatoes in the first half hour or so after exercise. This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes. Since most athletes develop a fluid deficit during exercise, replenishment of fluids post-exercise is also a very important consideration for optimal recovery.

It is recommended that athletes consume 1. Protein is an important part of a training diet and plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair. Protein needs are generally met and often exceeded by most athletes who consume sufficient energy in their diet.

The amount of protein recommended for sporting people is only slightly higher than that recommended for the general public. For athletes interested in increasing lean mass or muscle protein synthesis, consumption of a high-quality protein source such as whey protein or milk containing around 20 to 25 g protein in close proximity to exercise for example, within the period immediately to 2 hours after exercise may be beneficial.

As a general approach to achieving optimal protein intakes, it is suggested to space out protein intake fairly evenly over the course of a day, for instance around 25 to 30 g protein every 3 to 5 hours, including as part of regular meals. There is currently a lack of evidence to show that protein supplements directly improve athletic performance.

Therefore, for most athletes, additional protein supplements are unlikely to improve sport performance. A well-planned diet will meet your vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency.

There is no evidence that extra doses of vitamins improve sporting performance. Nutritional supplements can be found in pill, tablet, capsule, powder or liquid form, and cover a broad range of products including:. Before using supplements, you should consider what else you can do to improve your sporting performance — diet, training and lifestyle changes are all more proven and cost effective ways to improve your performance.

Relatively few supplements that claim performance benefits are supported by sound scientific evidence. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is also potentially dangerous. Supplements should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional.

The ethical use of sports supplements is a personal choice by athletes, and it remains controversial. If taking supplements, you are also at risk of committing an anti-doping rule violation no matter what level of sport you play.

Dehydration can impair athletic performance and, in extreme cases, may lead to collapse and even death. Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is very important.

Fluid intake is particularly important for events lasting more than 60 minutes, of high intensity or in warm conditions. Water is a suitable drink, but sports drinks may be required, especially in endurance events or warm climates.

Sports drinks contain some sodium, which helps absorption. While insufficient hydration is a problem for many athletes, excess hydration may also be potentially dangerous. In rare cases, athletes might consume excessive amounts of fluids that dilute the blood too much, causing a low blood concentration of sodium.

This condition is called hyponatraemia, which can potentially lead to seizures, collapse, coma or even death if not treated appropriately.

Consuming fluids at a level of to ml per hour of exercise might be a suitable starting point to avoid dehydration and hyponatraemia, although intake should ideally be customised to individual athletes, considering variable factors such as climate, sweat rates and tolerance.

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The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

Latest news Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement guideliines Sports nutrition guidelines performance during exercise of guidelnes intensity. From there, one can njtrition evaluate the Strategies for improved concentration abstracts and articles guidelknes asking a series of guldelines. For example, Wilborn Sportz colleagues [ ] reported Sports nutrition guidelines 8 weeks of supplementing with isoflavones with resistance training Sports nutrition guidelines not significantly impact strength Spkrts Sports nutrition guidelines composition. This clear and highly applied overview of exercise nutrition illustrates difficult concepts using real-world examples and case studies that allow students to put learning into practice. Although more research is necessary in this area, evidence clearly indicates that protein needs of individuals engaged in intense training are elevated and consequently those athletes who achieve higher intakes of protein while training promote greater changes in fat-free mass. The best dietary sources of low fat, high quality protein are light skinless chicken, fish, egg whites, very lean cuts of beef and skim milk casein and whey while protein supplements routinely contain whey, casein, milk and egg protein. The State of Victoria and the Department of Health shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website.
Nutrition Guidelines for Athletes More information on vegetarian and vegan diets is available on our page on this topic. Would you like to be contacted about your feedback? The performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. Sports nutrition is far more encompassing than understanding the basics of nutrition. Exercising raises body temperature and so the body tries to cool down by sweating.
Nutrition for Athletes: Gaining an Understanding of Sports Nutrition

Beyond accretion of fat-free mass, increasing daily protein intake through a combination of food and supplementation to levels above the recommended daily allowance RDA RDA 0.

The majority of this work has been conducted using overweight and obese individuals who were prescribed an energy-restricted diet that delivered a greater ratio of protein relative to carbohydrate. Greater amounts of fat were lost when higher amounts of protein were ingested, but even greater amounts of fat loss occurred when the exercise program was added to the high-protein diet group, resulting in significant decreases in body fat.

Each person was randomly assigned to consume a diet that contained either 1× 0. Participants were measured for changes in body weight and body composition.

While the greatest body weight loss occurred in the 1× RDA group, this group also lost the highest percentage of fat-free mass and lowest percentage of fat mass. Collectively, these results indicate that increasing dietary protein can promote favorable adaptations in body composition through the promotion of fat-free mass accretion when combined with a hyperenergetic diet and a heavy resistance training program and can also promote the loss of fat mass when higher intakes of daily protein × the RDA are combined with an exercise program and a hypoenergetic diet.

When combined with a hyperenergetic diet and a heavy resistance-training program, protein supplementation may promote increases in skeletal muscle cross-sectional area and lean body mass.

When combined with a resistance-training program and a hypoenergetic diet, an elevated daily intake of protein 2 — 3× the RDA can promote greater losses of fat mass and greater overall improvements in body composition.

In the absence of feeding, muscle protein balance remains negative in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise [ 48 ]. Tipton et al. Later, Burd et al. Subsequently, these conclusions were supported by Borsheim [ 52 ] and Volpi [ 53 ].

The study by Borsheim also documented a dose-response outcome characterized by a near doubling of net protein balance in response to a three to six gram dose of the EAAs [ 52 ]. Building on this work, Tipton et al. These findings formed the theoretical concept of protein timing for resistance exercise that has since been transferred to not only other short-duration, high-intensity activities [ 56 ] but also endurance-based sports [ 57 ] and subsequent performance outcomes [ 58 ].

The strategic consumption of nutrition, namely protein or various forms of amino acids, in the hours immediately before and during exercise i. While earlier investigations reported positive effects from consumption of amino acids [ 37 , 46 , 61 ], it is now clear that intact protein supplements such as egg, whey, casein, beef, soy and even whole milk can evoke an anabolic response that can be similar or greater in magnitude to free form amino acids, assuming ingestion of equal EAA amounts [ 62 , 63 , 64 ].

For instance, whey protein ingested close to resistance exercise, promotes a higher activation phosphorylation of mTOR a key signaling protein found in myocytes that is linked to the synthesis of muscle proteins and its downstream mRNA translational signaling proteins i.

Moreover, it was found that the increased mTOR signaling corresponded with significantly greater muscle hypertrophy after 10 weeks of training [ 65 ]. However, the hypertrophic differences between protein consumption and a non-caloric placebo appeared to plateau by week 21, despite a persistently greater activation of this molecular signaling pathway from supplementation.

Results from other research groups [ 56 , 57 , 58 , 66 ] show that timing of protein near ± 2 h aerobic and anaerobic exercise training appears to provide a greater activation of the molecular signalling pathways that regulate myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis as well as glycogen synthesis.

It is widely reported that protein consumption directly after resistance exercise is an effective way to acutely promote a positive muscle protein balance [ 31 , 55 , 67 ], which if repeated over time should translate into a net gain or hypertrophy of muscle [ 68 ].

Pennings and colleagues [ 69 ] reported an increase in both the delivery and incorporation of dietary proteins into the skeletal muscle of young and older adults when protein was ingested shortly after completion of exercise.

These findings and others add to the theoretical basis for consumption of post-protein sooner rather than later after exercise, since post workout MPS rates peak within three hours and remain elevated for an additional 24—72 h [ 50 , 70 ]. This extended time frame also provides a rationale for both immediate and sustained i.

These temporal considerations would also capture the peak elevation in signalling proteins shown to be pivotal for increasing the initiation of translation of muscle proteins, which for the most part appears to peak between 30 and 60 min after exercise [ 71 ].

However, these differences may be related to the type of protein used between the studies. The studies showing positive effects of protein timing used milk proteins, whereas the latter study used a collagen based protein supplement.

While a great deal of work has focused on post-exercise protein ingestion, other studies have suggested that pre-exercise and even intra-exercise ingestion may also support favorable changes in MPS and muscle protein breakdown [ 14 , 54 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 ].

Initially, Tipton and colleagues [ 54 ] directly compared immediate pre-exercise and immediate post-exercise ingestion of a mixture of carbohydrate 35 g and EAAs 6 g combination on changes in MPS.

They reported that pre-exercise ingestion promoted higher rates of MPS while also demonstrating that nutrient ingestion prior to exercise increased nutrient delivery to a much greater extent than other immediate or one hour post-exercise time points.

These results were later challenged by Fujita in who employed an identical study design with a different tracer incorporation approach and concluded there was no difference between pre- or post-exercise ingestion [ 75 ]. Subsequent work by Tipton [ 79 ] also found that similar elevated rates of MPS were achieved when ingesting 20 g of a whey protein isolate immediately before or immediately after resistance exercise.

At this point, whether any particular time of protein ingestion confers any unique advantage over other time points throughout a h day to improve strength and hypertrophy has yet to be adequately investigated.

To date, although a substantial amount of literature discusses this concept [ 60 , 80 ], a limited number of training studies have assessed whether immediate pre- and post-exercise protein consumption provides unique advantages compared to other time points [ 72 , 73 , 81 ].

Each study differed in population, training program, environment and nutrition utilized, with each reporting a different result. What is becoming clear is that the subject population, nutrition habits, dosing protocols on both training and non-training days, energy and macronutrient intake, as well as the exercise bout or training program itself should be carefully considered alongside the results.

In particular, the daily amount of protein intake seems to operate as a key consideration because the benefits of protein timing in relation to the peri-workout period seem to be lessened for people who are already ingesting appropriate amounts of protein e.

A literature review by Aragon and Schoenfeld [ 83 ] determined that while compelling evidence exists showing muscle is sensitized to protein ingestion following training, the increased sensitivity to protein ingestion might be greatest in the first five to six hours following exercise.

Thus, the importance of timing may be largely dependent on when a pre-workout meal was consumed, the size and composition of that meal and the total daily protein in the diet. In this respect, a pre-exercise meal will provide amino acids during and after exercise and therefore it stands to reason there is less need for immediate post-exercise protein ingestion if a pre-exercise meal is consumed less than five hours before the anticipated completion of a workout.

A meta-analysis by Schoenfeld et al. The authors concluded that total protein intake was the strongest predictor of muscular hypertrophy and that protein timing likely influences hypertrophy to a lesser degree.

However, the conclusions from this meta-analysis may be questioned because the majority of the studies analyzed were not protein timing studies but rather protein supplementation studies.

In that respect, the meta-analysis provides evidence that protein supplementation i. While a strong rationale remains to support the concept that the hours immediately before or after resistance exercise represents an opportune time to deliver key nutrients that will drive the accretion of fat-free mass and possibly other favorable adaptations, the majority of available literature suggests that other factors may indeed be operating to a similar degree that ultimately impact the observed adaptations.

In this respect, a key variable that must be accounted for is the absolute need for energy and protein required to appropriately set the body up to accumulate fat-free mass.

Thus, the most practical recommendation is to have athletes consume a meal during the post-workout or pre-workout time period since it may either help or have a neutral effect. In younger subjects, the ingestion of 20—30 g of any high biological value protein before or after resistance exercise appears to be sufficient to maximally stimulate MPS [ 21 , 64 ].

More recently, Macnaughton and colleagues [ 85 ] reported that 40 g of whey protein ingestion significantly increased the MPS responses compared to a 20 g feeding after an acute bout of whole-body resistance exercise, and that the absolute protein dose may operate as a more important consideration than providing a protein dose that is normalized to lean mass.

Free form EAAs, soy, milk, whey, caseinate, and other protein hydrolysates are all capable of activating MPS [ 86 ]. However, maximal stimulation of MPS, which results in higher net muscle protein accretion, is the product of the total amount of EAA in circulation as well as the pattern and appearance rate of aminoacidemia that modulates the MPS response [ 86 ].

Recent work has clarified that whey protein provides a distinct advantage over other protein sources including soy considered another fast absorbing protein and casein a slower acting protein source on acute stimulation of MPS [ 86 , 87 ].

Importantly, an elegant study by West and investigators [ 87 ] sought to match the delivery of EAAs in feeding patterns that replicated how whey and casein are digested. The authors reported that a 25 g dose of whey protein that promoted rapid aminoacidemia further enhanced MPS and anabolic signaling when compared to an identical total dose of whey protein when delivered as ten separate 2.

The advantages of whey protein are important to consider, particularly as all three sources rank similarly in assessments of protein quality [ 88 ]. In addition to soy, other plant sources e. have garnered interest as potential protein sources to consider.

Unfortunately, research that examines the ability of these protein sources to modulate exercise performance and training adaptations is limited at this time. The investigators concluded that gains in strength, muscle thickness and body composition were similar between the two protein groups, suggesting that rice protein may be a suitable alternative to whey protein at promoting resistance training adaptations.

Furthermore, differences in absorption kinetics, and the subsequent impact on muscle protein metabolism appear to extend beyond the degree of hydrolysis and amino acid profiles [ 69 , 86 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 92 ].

For instance, unlike soy more of the EAAs from whey proteins hydrolysates and isolates survive splanchnic uptake and travel to the periphery to activate a higher net gain in muscle [ 86 ]. These characteristics yield a high concentration of amino acids in the blood aminoacidemia [ 69 , 87 ] that facilitates greater activation of MPS and net muscle protein accretion, in direct comparison to other protein choices [ 50 , 69 , 91 ].

The addition of creatine to whey protein supplementation appears to further augment these adaptations [ 27 , 72 , 95 ]; however, an optimal timing strategy for this combination remains unclear. The timing of protein-rich meals consumed throughout a day has the potential to influence adaptations to exercise.

Using similar methods, other studies over recent decades [ 53 , 62 , 87 , 91 , 96 , 97 , 98 , 99 , ] have established the following:. The anabolic response to feeding is pronounced but transient. During the post-prandial phase 1—4 h after a meal MPS is elevated, resulting in a positive muscle protein balance.

In contrast, MPS rates are lower in a fasted state and muscle protein balance is negative. Protein accretion only occurs in the fed state. The concentration of EAA in the blood plasma regulates protein synthesis rates within muscle at rest and post exercise.

More recent work has established that protein-carbohydrate supplementation after strenuous endurance exercise stimulates contractile MPS via similar signaling pathways as resistance exercise [ 56 , 57 ]. That is, the consumption of a protein-containing meal up to 24 h after a single bout of resistance exercise results in a higher net stimulation of MPS and protein accretion than the same meal consumed after 24 h of inactivity [ 50 ].

The effect of insulin on MPS is dependent on its ability to increase amino acid availability, which does not occur when insulin is systematically increased e. Taken together, these results seem to indicate that post-workout carbohydrate supplementation offers very little contribution from a muscle development standpoint provided adequate protein is consumed.

Importantly, these results are not to be interpreted to mean that carbohydrate administration offers no potential effect for an athlete engaging in moderate to high volumes of training, but rather that benefits derived from carbohydrate administration appear to more favorably impact aspects of muscle glycogen recovery as opposed to stimulating muscle protein accretion.

Eating before sleep has long been controversial [ , , ]. However, a methodological consideration in the original studies such as the population used, time of feeding, and size of the pre-sleep meal confounds firm conclusions about benefits or drawbacks.

Results from several investigations indicate that 30—40 g of casein protein ingested min prior to sleep [ ] or via nasogastric tubing [ ] increased overnight MPS in both young and old men, respectively. Likewise, in an acute setting, 30 g of whey protein, 30 g of casein protein, and 33 g of carbohydrate consumed min prior to sleep resulted in an elevated morning resting metabolic rate in young fit men compared to a non-caloric placebo [ ].

Interestingly, Madzima et al. This infers that casein protein consumed pre-sleep maintains overnight lipolysis and fat oxidation. This finding was further supported by Kinsey et al.

Similar to Madzima et al. Interestingly, the pre-sleep protein and carbohydrate ingestion resulted in elevated insulin concentrations the next morning and decreased hunger in this overweight population.

Of note, it appears that exercise training completely ameliorates any rise in insulin when eating at night before sleep [ ], while the combination of pre-sleep protein and exercise has been shown to reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness in young obese women with prehypertension and hypertension [ ].

In athletes, evening chocolate milk consumption has also been shown to influence carbohydrate metabolism in the morning, but not running performance [ ]. In addition, data supports that exercise performed in the evening augments the overnight MPS response in both younger and older men [ , , ].

To date, only a few studies involving nighttime protein ingestion have been carried out for longer than four weeks. Snijders et al. The group receiving the protein-centric supplement each night before sleep had greater improvements in muscle mass and strength over the week study.

Of note, this study was non-nitrogen balanced and the protein group received approximately 1. More recently, in a study in which total protein intake was equal, Antonio et al. They examined the effects on body composition and performance [ ].

All subjects maintained their usual exercise program. The authors reported no differences in body composition or performance between the morning and evening casein supplementation groups.

However, it is worth noting that, although not statistically significant, the morning group added 0. Although this finding was not statistically significant, it supports data from Burk et al. It should be noted that the subjects in the Burk et al. study were resistance training. A retrospective epidemiological study by Buckner et al.

Thus, it appears that protein consumption in the evening before sleep might be an underutilized time to take advantage of a protein feeding opportunity that can potentially improve body composition and performance.

In addition to direct assessments of timed administration of nutrients, other studies have explored questions that center upon the pattern of when certain protein-containing meals are consumed. Paddon-Jones et al. In this study, participants were given an EAA supplement three times a day for 28 days.

Results indicated that acute stimulation of MPS provided by the supplement on day 1 resulted in a net gain of ~7. When extrapolated over the entire day study, the predicted change in muscle mass corresponded to the actual change in muscle mass ~ g measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXA [ 97 ].

While these findings are important, it is vital to highlight that this study incorporated a bed rest model with no acute exercise stimulus while other work by Mitchell et al. Interestingly, supplementation with 15 g of EAAs and 30 g of carbohydrate produced a greater anabolic effect increase in net phenylalanine balance than the ingestion of a mixed macronutrient meal, despite the fact that both interventions contained a similar dose of EAAs [ 96 ].

Most importantly, the consumption of the supplement did not interfere with the normal anabolic response to the meal consumed three hours later [ 96 ]. Areta et al. The researchers compared the anabolic responses of three different patterns of ingestion a total of 80 g of protein throughout a h recovery period after resistance exercise.

Using a group of healthy young adult males, the protein feeding strategies consisted of small pulsed 8 × 10 g , intermediate 4 × 20 g , or bolus 2 × 40 g administration of whey protein over the h measurement window.

Results showed that the intermediate dosing 4 × 20 g was superior for stimulating MPS for the h experimental period. Specifically, the rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were optimized throughout the day of recovery by the consumption of 20 g protein every three hours compared to large 2 × 40 g , less frequent servings or smaller but more frequent 8 × 10 g patterns of protein intake [ 67 ].

Previously, the effect of various protein feeding strategies on skeletal MPS during an entire day was unknown. This study provided novel information demonstrating that the regulation of MPS can be modulated by the timing and distribution of protein over 12 h after a single bout of resistance exercise.

However, it should be noted that an 80 g dose of protein over a h period is quite low. The logical next step for researchers is to extend these findings into longitudinal training studies to see if these patterns can significantly affect resistance-training adaptations.

Indeed, published studies by Arnal [ ] and Tinsley [ ] have all made some attempt to examine the impact of adjusting the pattern of protein consumption across the day in combination with various forms of exercise. Collective results from these studies are mixed. Thus, future studies in young adults should be designed to compare a balanced vs.

skewed distribution pattern of daily protein intake on the daytime stimulation of MPS under resting and post-exercise conditions and training-induced changes in muscle mass, while taking into consideration the established optimal dose of protein contained in a single serving for young adults.

Without more conclusive evidence spanning several weeks, it seems pragmatic to recommend the consumption of at least g of protein ~0. In the absence of feeding and in response to resistance exercise, muscle protein balance remains negative.

Skeletal muscle is sensitized to the effects of protein and amino acids for up to 24 h after completion of a bout of resistance exercise. A protein dose of 20—40 g of protein 10—12 g of EAAs, 1—3 g of leucine stimulates MPS, which can help to promote a positive nitrogen balance.

The EAAs are critically needed for achieving maximal rates of MPS making high-quality, protein sources that are rich in EAAs and leucine the preferred sources of protein. Studies have suggested that pre-exercise feedings of amino acids in combination with carbohydrate can achieve maximal rates of MPS, but protein and amino acid feedings during this time are not clearly documented to increase exercise performance.

Total protein and calorie intake appears to be the most important consideration when it comes to promoting positive adaptations to resistance training, and the impact of timing strategies immediately before or immediately after to heighten these adaptations in non-athletic populations appears to be minimal.

Proteins provide the building blocks of all tissues via their constituent amino acids. Athletes consume dietary protein to repair and rebuild skeletal muscle and connective tissues following intense training bouts or athletic events.

A report in by Phillips [ ] summarized the findings surrounding protein requirements in resistance-trained athletes. Using a regression approach, he concluded that a protein intake of 1. A key consideration regarding these recommended values is that all generated data were obtained using the nitrogen balance technique, which is known to underestimate protein requirements.

Interestingly, two of the included papers had prescribed protein intakes of 2. All data points from these two studies also had the highest levels of positive nitrogen balance. For an athlete seeking to ensure an anabolic environment, higher daily protein intakes might be needed.

Another challenge that underpins the ability to universally and successfully recommend daily protein amounts are factors related to the volume of the exercise program, age, body composition and training status of the athlete; as well as the total energy intake in the diet, particularly for athletes who desire to lose fat and are restricting calories to accomplish this goal [ ].

For these reasons, and due to an increase of published studies in areas related to optimal protein dosing, timing and composition, protein needs are being recommended within this position stand on a per meal basis. For example, Moore [ 31 ] found that muscle and albumin protein synthesis was optimized at approximately 20 g of egg protein at rest.

Witard et al. Furthermore, while results from these studies offer indications of what optimal absolute dosing amounts may be, Phillips [ ] concluded that a relative dose of 0. Once a total daily target protein intake has been achieved, the frequency and pattern with which optimal doses are ingested may serve as a key determinant of overall changes in protein synthetic rates.

Research indicates that rates of MPS rapidly rise to peak levels within 30 min of protein ingestion and are maintained for up to three hours before rapidly beginning to lower to basal rates of MPS even though amino acids are still elevated in the blood [ ]. Using an oral ingestion model of 48 g of whey protein in healthy young men, rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis increased three-fold within 45—90 min before slowly declining to basal rates of MPS all while plasma concentration of EAAs remained significantly elevated [ ].

While largely unexplored in a human model, these authors relied upon an animal model and were able to reinstate increases in MPS using the consumption of leucine and carbohydrate min after ingestion of the first meal. As such, it is suggested that individuals attempting to restrict caloric intake should consume three to four whole meals consisting of 20—40 g of protein per meal.

While this recommendation stems primarily from initial work that indicated protein doses of 20—40 g favorably promote increased rates of MPS [ 31 , , ], Kim and colleagues [ ] recently reported that a 70 g dose of protein promoted a more favorable net balance of protein when compared to a 40 g dose due to a stronger attenuation of rates of muscle protein breakdown.

For those attempting to increase their calories, we suggest consuming small snacks between meals consisting of both a complete protein and a carbohydrate source.

This contention is supported by research from Paddon-Jones et al. These researchers compared three cal mixed macronutrient meals to three cal meals combined with three cal amino acid-carbohydrate snacks between meals.

Additionally, using a protein distribution pattern of 20—25 g doses every three hours in response to a single bout of lower body resistance exercise appears to promote the greatest increase in MPS rates and phosphorylation of key intramuscular proteins linked to muscle hypertrophy [ ].

This simple addition could provide benefits for individuals looking to increase muscle mass and improve body composition in general while also striving to maintain or improve health and performance. The current RDA for protein is 0.

While previous recommendations have suggested a daily intake of 1. Daily and per dose needs are combinations of many factors including volume of exercise, age, body composition, total energy intake and training status of the athlete. Daily intakes of 1. Even higher amounts ~70 g appear to be necessary to promote attenuation of muscle protein breakdown.

Pacing or spreading these feeding episodes approximately three hours apart has been consistently reported to promote sustained, increased levels of MPS and performance benefits.

There are 20 total amino acids, comprised of 9 EAAs and 11 non-essential amino acids NEAAs. EAAs cannot be produced in the body and therefore must be consumed in the diet.

Several methods exist to determine protein quality such as Chemical Score, Protein Efficiency Ratio, Biological Value, Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score PDCAAS and most recently, the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation IAAO technique.

Ultimately, in vivo protein quality is typically defined as how effective a protein is at stimulating MPS and promoting muscle hypertrophy [ ]. Overall, research has shown that products containing animal and dairy-based proteins contain the highest percentage of EAAs and result in greater hypertrophy and protein synthesis following resistance training when compared to a vegetarian protein-matched control, which typically lacks one or more EAAs [ 86 , 93 , ].

Several studies, but not all, [ ] have indicated that EAAs alone stimulate protein synthesis in the same magnitude as a whole protein with the same EAA content [ 98 ].

For example, Borsheim et al. Moreover, Paddon-Jones and colleagues [ 96 ] found that a cal supplement containing 15 g of EAAs stimulated greater rates of protein synthesis than an cal meal with the same EAA content from a whole protein source.

While important, the impact of a larger meal on changes in circulation and the subsequent delivery of the relevant amino acids to the muscle might operate as important considerations when interpreting this data. In contrast, Katsanos and colleagues [ ] had 15 elderly subjects consume either 15 g of whey protein or individual doses of the essential and nonessential amino acids that were identical to what is found in a g whey protein dose on separate occasions.

Whey protein ingestion significantly increased leg phenylalanine balance, an index of muscle protein accrual, while EAA and NEAA ingestion exerted no significant impact on leg phenylalanine balance.

This study, and the results reported by others [ ] have led to the suggestion that an approximate 10 g dose of EAAs might serve as an optimal dose to maximally stimulate MPS and that intact protein feedings of appropriate amounts as opposed to free amino acids to elderly individuals may stimulate greater improvements in leg muscle protein accrual.

Based on this research, scientists have also attempted to determine which of the EAAs are primarily responsible for modulating protein balance. The three branched-chain amino acids BCAAs , leucine, isoleucine, and valine are unique among the EAAs for their roles in protein metabolism [ ], neural function [ , , ], and blood glucose and insulin regulation [ ].

Additionally, enzymes responsible for the degradation of BCAAs operate in a rate-limiting fashion and are found in low levels in splanchnic tissues [ ]. Thus, orally ingested BCAAs appear rapidly in the bloodstream and expose muscle to high concentrations ultimately making them key components of skeletal MPS [ ].

Furthermore, Wilson and colleagues [ ] have recently demonstrated, in an animal model, that leucine ingestion alone and with carbohydrate consumed between meals min post-consumption extends protein synthesis by increasing the energy status of the muscle fiber. Multiple human studies have supported the contention that leucine drives protein synthesis [ , ].

Moreover, this response may occur in a dose-dependent fashion, plateauing at approximately two g at rest [ 31 , ], and increasing up to 3. However, it is important to realize that the duration of protein synthesis after resistance exercise appears to be limited by both the signal leucine concentrations , ATP status, as well as the availability of substrate i.

As such, increasing leucine concentration may stimulate increases in muscle protein, but a higher total dose of all EAAs as free form amino acids or intact protein sources seems to be most suited for sustaining the increased rates of MPS [ ].

It is well known that exercise improves net muscle protein balance and in the absence of protein feeding, this balance becomes more negative. When combined with protein feeding, net muscle protein balance after exercise becomes positive [ ]. Norton and Layman [ ] proposed that consumption of leucine, could turn a negative protein balance to a positive balance following an intense exercise bout by prolonging the MPS response to feeding.

In support, the ingestion of a protein or essential amino acid complex that contains sufficient amounts of leucine has been shown to shift protein balance to a net positive state after intense exercise training [ 46 , ].

Even though leucine has been demonstrated to independently stimulate protein synthesis, it is important to recognize that supplementation should not be with just leucine alone.

For instance, Wilson et al. In summary, athletes should focus on consuming adequate leucine content in each of their meals through selection of high-quality protein sources [ ].

Protein sources containing higher levels of the EAAs are considered to be higher quality sources of protein.

The body uses 20 amino acids to make proteins, seven of which are essential nine conditionally , requiring their ingestion to meet daily needs. EAAs appear to be uniquely responsible for increasing MPS with doses ranging from 6 to 15 g all exerting stimulatory effects.

In addition, doses of approximately one to three g of leucine per meal appear to be needed to stimulate protein translation machinery. The BCAAs i. However, the extent to which these changes are aligned with changes in MPS remains to be fully explored. While greater doses of leucine have been shown to independently stimulate increases in protein synthesis, a balanced consumption of the EAAs promotes the greatest increases.

Milk proteins have undergone extensive research related to their potential roles in augmenting adaptations from exercise training [ 86 , 93 ]. For example, consuming milk following exercise has been demonstrated to accelerate recovery from muscle damaging exercise [ ], increase glycogen replenishment [ ], improve hydration status [ , ], and improve protein balance to favor synthesis [ 86 , 93 ], ultimately resulting in increased gains in both neuromuscular strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy [ 93 ].

Moreover, milk protein contains the highest score on the PDCAAS rating system, and in general contains the greatest density of leucine [ ]. Milk can be fractionated into two protein classes, casein and whey. While both are high in quality, the two differ in the rate at which they digest as well as the impact they have on protein metabolism [ , , ].

Whey protein is water soluble, mixes easily, and is rapidly digested [ ]. In contrast, casein is water insoluble, coagulates in the gut and is digested more slowly than whey protein [ ]. Casein also has intrinsic properties such as opioid peptides, which effectively slow gastric motility [ ].

Original research investigating the effects of digestion rate was conducted by Boirie, Dangin and colleagues [ , , ]. These researchers gave a 30 g bolus of whey protein and a 43 g bolus of casein protein to subjects on separate occasions and measured amino acid levels for several hours after ingestion.

They reported that the whey protein condition displayed robust hyperaminoacidemia min after administration. However, by min, amino acid concentrations had returned to baseline.

In contrast, the casein condition resulted in a slow increase in amino acid concentrations, which remained elevated above baseline after min. Over the study duration, casein produced a greater whole body leucine balance than the whey protein condition, leading the researcher to suggest that prolonged, moderate hyperaminoacidemia is more effective at stimulating increases in whole body protein anabolism than a robust, short lasting hyperaminoacidemia.

While this research appears to support the efficacy of slower digesting proteins, subsequent work has questioned its validity in athletes.

The first major criticism is that Boire and colleagues investigated whole body non-muscle and muscle protein balance instead of skeletal myofibrillar MPS.

These findings suggest that changes in whole body protein turnover may poorly reflect the level of skeletal muscle protein metabolism that may be taking place. Trommelen and investigators [ ] examined 24 young men ingesting 30 g of casein protein with or without completion of a single bout of resistance exercise, and concluded that rates of MPS were increased, but whole-body protein synthesis rates were not impacted.

More recently, Tang and colleagues [ 86 ] investigated the effects of administering 22 g of hydrolyzed whey isolate and micellar casein 10 g of EAAs at both rest and following a single bout of resistance training in young males.

Moreover, these researchers reported that whey protein ingestion stimulated greater MPS at both rest and following exercise when compared to casein. In comparison to the control group, both whey and casein significantly increased leucine balance, but no differences were found between the two protein sources for amino acid uptake and muscle protein balance.

Additional research has also demonstrated that 10 weeks of whey protein supplementation in trained bodybuilders resulted in greater gains in lean mass 5.

These findings suggest that the faster-digesting whey proteins may be more beneficial for skeletal muscle adaptations than the slower digesting casein. Skeletal muscle glycogen stores are a critical element to both prolonged and high-intensity exercise.

In skeletal muscle, glycogen synthase activity is considered one of the key regulatory factors for glycogen synthesis. Research has demonstrated that the addition of protein in the form of milk and whey protein isolate 0.

Further, the addition of protein facilitates repair and recovery of the exercised muscle [ 12 ]. These effects are thought to be related to a greater insulin response following the exercise bout. Intriguingly, it has also been demonstrated that whey protein enhances glycogen synthesis in the liver and skeletal muscle more than casein in an insulin-independent fashion that appears to be due to its capacity to upregulate glycogen synthase activity [ ].

Therefore, the addition of milk protein to a post-workout meal may augment recovery, improve protein balance, and speed glycogen replenishment. While athletes tend to view whey as the ideal protein for skeletal muscle repair and function it also has several health benefits. In particular, whey protein contains an array of biologically active peptides whose amino acids sequences give them specific signaling effects when liberated in the gut.

Furthermore, whey protein appears to play a role in enhancing lymphatic and immune system responses [ ]. In addition, α-lactalbumin contains an ample supply of tryptophan which increases cognitive performance under stress [ ], improves the quality of sleep [ , ], and may also speed wound healing [ ], properties which could be vital for recovery from combat and contact sporting events.

In addition, lactoferrin is also found in both milk and in whey protein, and has been demonstrated to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties [ ].

Moreover, there is some evidence that whey protein can bind iron and therefore increase its absorption and retention [ ].

Egg protein is often thought of as an ideal protein because its amino acid profile has been used as the standard for comparing other dietary proteins [ ].

Due to their excellent digestibility and amino acid content, eggs are an excellent source of protein for athletes. While the consumption of eggs has been criticized due to their cholesterol content, a growing body of evidence demonstrates the lack of a relationship between egg consumption and coronary heart disease, making egg-based products more appealing [ ].

One large egg has 75 kcal and 6 g of protein, but only 1. Research using eggs as the protein source for athletic performance and body composition is lacking, perhaps due to less funding opportunities relative to funding for dairy.

Egg protein may be particularly important for athletes, as this protein source has been demonstrated to significantly increase protein synthesis of both skeletal muscle and plasma proteins after resistance exercise at both 20 and 40 g doses. Leucine oxidation rates were found to increase following the 40 g dose, suggesting that this amount exceeds an optimal dose [ 31 ].

In addition to providing a cost effective, high-quality source of protein rich in leucine 0. Functional foods are defined as foods that, by the presence of physiologically active components, provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition [ ].

According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, functional foods should be consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels [ ]. Thus, it is essential that athletes select foods that meet protein requirements and also optimize health and prevent decrements in immune function following intense training.

Eggs are also rich in choline, a nutrient which may have positive effects on cognitive function [ ]. Moreover, eggs provide an excellent source of the carotenoid-based antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin [ ].

Also, eggs can be prepared with most meal choices, whether at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Such positive properties increase the probability of the athletes adhering to a diet rich in egg protein. Meat proteins are a major staple in the American diet and, depending on the cut of meat, contain varying amounts of fat and cholesterol.

Meat proteins are well known to be rich sources of the EAAs [ ]. Beef is a common source of dietary protein and is considered to be of high biological value because it contains the full balance of EAAs in a fraction similar to that found in human skeletal muscle [ ]. A standard serving of Moreover, this 30 g dose of beef protein has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis in both young and elderly subjects [ ].

In addition to its rich content of amino acids, beef and other flesh proteins can serve as important sources of micronutrients such as iron, selenium, vitamins A, B12 and folic acid. This is a particularly important consideration for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Ultimately, as an essential part of a mixed diet, meat helps to ensure adequate distribution of essential micronutrients and amino acids to the body.

Research has shown that significant differences in skeletal muscle mass and body composition between older men who resistance train and either consume meat-based or lactoovovegetarian diet [ ].

Over a week period, whole-body density, fat-free mass, and whole-body muscle mass as measured by urinary creatinine excretion increased in the meat-sourced diet group but decreased in the lactoovovegetarian diet group.

These results indicate that not only do meat-based diets increase fat-free mass, but also they may specifically increase muscle mass, thus supporting the many benefits of meat-based diets.

A diet high in meat protein in older adults may provide an important resource in reducing the risk of sarcopenia.

Positive results have also been seen in elite athletes that consume meat-based proteins, as opposed to vegetarian diets [ ]. For example, carnitine is a molecule that transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation and is found in high amounts in meat.

While evidence is lacking to support an increase in fat oxidation with increased carnitine availability, carnitine has been linked to the sparing of muscle glycogen, and decreases in exercise-induced muscle damage [ ].

Certainly, more research is needed to support these assertions. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound found mainly in muscle. Vegetarians have lower total body creatine stores than omnivores, which demonstrates that regular meat eating has a significant effect on human creatine status [ ].

Moreover, creatine supplementation studies with vegetarians indicate that increased creatine uptake levels do exist in people who practice various forms of vegetarianism [ ]. Sharp and investigators [ ] published the only study known to compare different supplemental powdered forms of animal proteins on adaptations to resistance training such as increases in strength and improvements in body composition.

Forty-one men and women performed a standardized resistance-training program over eight weeks and consumed a daily 46 g dose of either hydrolyzed chicken protein, beef protein isolate, or whey protein concentrate in comparison to a control group.

All groups experienced similar increases in upper and lower-body strength, but all protein-supplemented groups reported significant increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass. Meat-based diets have been shown to include additional overall health benefits. Some studies have found that meat, as a protein source, is associated with higher serum levels of IGF-1 [ ], which in turn is related to increased bone mineralization and fewer fractures [ ].

A highly debated topic in nutrition and epidemiology is whether vegetarian diets are a healthier choice than omnivorous diets. One key difference is the fact that vegetarian diets often lack equivalent amounts of protein when compared to omnivorous diets [ ]. However, with proper supplementation and careful nutritional choices, it is possible to have complete proteins in a vegetarian diet.

Generally by consuming high-quality, animal-based products meat, milk, eggs, and cheese an individual will achieve optimal growth as compared to ingesting only plant proteins [ ].

Research has shown that soy is considered a lower quality complete protein. Hartman et al. They found that the participants that consumed the milk protein increased lean mass and decreased fat mass more than the control and soy groups.

Moreover, the soy group was not significantly different from the control group. Similarly, a study by Tang and colleagues [ 86 ] directly compared the abilities of hydrolyzed whey isolate, soy isolate, and micellar casein to stimulate rates of MPS both at rest and in response to a single bout of lower body resistance training.

These authors reported that the ability of soy to stimulate MPS was greater than casein, but less than whey, at rest and in response to an acute resistance exercise stimulus. While soy is considered a complete protein, it contains lower amounts of BCAAs than bovine milk [ ].

Additionally, research has found that dietary soy phytoestrogens inhibit mTOR expression in skeletal muscle through activation of AMPK [ ]. Thus, not only does soy contain lower amounts of the EAAs and leucine, but soy protein may also be responsible for inhibiting growth factors and protein synthesis via its negative regulation of mTOR.

When considering the multitude of plant sources of protein, soy overwhelmingly has the most research. Limited evidence using wheat protein in older men has suggested that wheat protein stimulates significantly lower levels of MPS when compared to an identical dose 35 g of casein protein, but when this dose is increased nearly two fold 60 g this protein source is able to significantly increase rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis [ ].

As mentioned earlier, a study by Joy and colleagues [ 89 ] in which participants participated in resistance training program for eight weeks while taking identical, high doses of either rice or whey protein, demonstrated that rice protein stimulated similar increases in body composition adaptations to whey protein.

The majority of available science has explored the efficacy of ingesting single protein sources, but evidence continues to mount that combining protein sources may afford additional benefits [ ].

For example, a week resistance training study by Kerksick and colleagues [ 22 ] demonstrated that a combination of whey 40 g and casein 8 g yielded the greatest increase in fat-free mass determined by DEXA when compared to both a combination of 40 g of whey, 5 g of glutamine, and 3 g of BCAAs and a placebo consisting of 48 g of a maltodextrin carbohydrate.

Later, Kerksick et al. Similarly, Hartman and investigators [ 93 ] had 56 healthy young men train for 12 weeks while either ingesting isocaloric and isonitrogenous doses of fat-free milk a blend of whey and casein , soy protein or a carbohydrate placebo and concluded that fat-free milk stimulated the greatest increases in Type I and II muscle fiber area as well as fat-free mass; however, strength outcomes were not affected.

Moreover, Wilkinson and colleagues [ 94 ] demonstrated that ingestion of fat-free milk vs. soy or carbohydrate led to a greater area under the curve for net balance of protein and that the fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein was greatest after milk ingestion.

In , Reidy et al. However, when the entire four-hour measurement period was considered, no difference in MPS rates were found. A follow-up publication from the same clinical trial also reported that ingestion of the protein blend resulted in a positive and prolonged amino acid balance when compared to ingestion of whey protein alone, while post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were similar between the two conditions [ ].

Reidy et al. No differences were found between whey and the whey and soy blend. Some valid criteria exist to compare protein sources and provide an objective method of how to include them in a diet.

As previously mentioned, common means of assessing protein quality include Biological Value, Protein Efficiency Ratio, PDCAAS and IAAO.

The derivation of each technique is different with all having distinct advantages and disadvantages. For nearly all populations, ideal methods should be linked to the capacity of the protein to positively affect protein balance in the short term, and facilitate increases and decreases in lean and fat-mass, respectively, over the long term.

To this point, dairy, egg, meat, and plant-based proteins have been discussed. As mentioned previously, initial research by Boirie and Dangin has highlighted the impact of protein digestion rate on net protein balance with the two milk proteins: whey and casein [ , , ].

Subsequent follow-up work has used this premise as a reference point for the digestion rates of other protein sources. Using the criteria of leucine content, Norton and Wilson et al. Wheat and soy did not stimulate MPS above fasted levels, whereas egg and whey proteins significantly increased MPS rates, with MPS for whey protein being greater than egg protein.

MPS responses were closely related to changes in plasma leucine and phosphorylation of 4E—BP1 and S6 K protein signaling molecules. More importantly, following 2- and weeks of ingestion, it was demonstrated that the leucine content of the meals increased muscle mass and was inversely correlated with body fat.

Tang et al. These findings lead us to conclude that athletes should seek protein sources that are both fast-digesting and high in leucine content to maximally stimulate rates of MPS at rest and following training.

Moreover, in consideration of the various additional attributes that high-quality protein sources deliver, it may be advantageous to consume a combination of higher quality protein sources dairy, egg, and meat sources. Multiple protein sources are available for an athlete to consider, and each has their own advantages and disadvantages.

Protein sources are commonly evaluated based upon the content of amino acids, particularly the EAAs, they provide. Blends of protein sources might afford a favorable combination of key nutrients such as leucine, EAAs, bioactive peptides, and antioxidants, but more research is needed to determine their ideal composition.

Nutrient density is defined as the amount of a particular nutrient carbohydrate, protein, fat, etc. per unit of energy in a given food. In many situations, the commercial preparation method of foods can affect the actual nutrient density of the resulting food.

When producing milk protein supplements, special preparations must be made to separate the protein sources from the lactose and fat calories in milk. For example, the addition of acid to milk causes the casein to coagulate or collect at the bottom, while the whey is left on the top [ ].

These proteins are then filtered to increase their purity. Filtration methods differ, and there are both benefits and disadvantages to each. Ion exchange exposes a given protein source, such as whey, to hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, thereby producing an electric charge on the proteins that can be used to separate them from lactose and fat [ ].

The advantage of this method is that it is relatively cheap and produces the highest protein concentration [ ]. The disadvantage is that ion exchange filtration typically denatures some of the valuable immune-boosting, anti-carcinogenic peptides found in whey [ ].

Cross-flow microfiltration, and ultra-micro filtration are based on the premise that the molecular weight of whey protein is greater than lactose, and use 1 and 0. As a result, whey protein is trapped in the membranes but the lactose and other components pass through. The advantage is that these processes do not denature valuable proteins and peptides found in whey, so the protein itself is deemed to be of higher quality [ ].

The main disadvantage is that this filtration process is typically costlier than the ion exchange method. When consumed whole, proteins are digested through a series of steps beginning with homogenization by chewing, followed by partial digestion by pepsin in the stomach [ ].

Following this, a combination of peptides, proteins, and negligible amounts of single amino acids are released into the small intestine and from there are either partially hydrolyzed into oligopeptides, 2—8 amino acids in length or are fully hydrolyzed into individual amino acids [ ].

Absorption of individual amino acids and various small peptides di, tri, and tetra into the blood occurs inside the small intestine through separate transport mechanisms [ ]. Oftentimes, products contain proteins that have been pre-exposed to specific digestive enzymes causing hydrolysis of the proteins into di, tri, and tetrapeptides.

A plethora of studies have investigated the effects of the degree of protein fractionation or degree of hydrolysis on the absorption of amino acids and the subsequent hormonal response [ , , , , , ].

Further, the rate of absorption may lead to a more favorable anabolic hormonal environment [ , , ]. Calbet et al. Each of the nitrogen containing solutions contained 15 g of glucose and 30 g of protein.

Results indicated that peptide hydrolysates produced a faster increase in venous plasma amino acids compared to milk proteins.

Further, the peptide hydrolysates produced peak plasma insulin levels that were two- and four-times greater than that evoked by the milk and glucose solutions, respectively, with a correlation of 0.

In a more appropriate comparison, Morifuji et al. However, Calbet et al. The hydrolyzed casein, however, did result in a greater amino acid response than the nonhydrolyzed casein.

Finally, both hydrolyzed groups resulted in greater gastric secretions, as well as greater plasma increases, in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptides [ ]. Buckley and colleagues [ ] found that a ~ 30 g dose of a hydrolyzed whey protein isolate resulted in a more rapid recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise, compared with a flavored water placebo or a non-hydrolyzed form of the same whey protein isolate.

In agreement with these findings, Cooke et al. Three and seven days after completing the damaging exercise bout, maximal strength levels were higher in the hydrolyzed whey protein group compared to carbohydrate supplementation. Additionally, blood concentrations of muscle damage markers tended to be lower when four ~g doses of a hydrolyzed whey protein isolate were ingested for two weeks following the damaging bout.

Beyond influencing strength recovery after damaging exercise, other benefits of hydrolyzed proteins have been suggested. For example, Morifuji et al.

Furthermore, Lockwood et al. Results indicated that strength and lean body mass LBM increased equally in all groups. However, fat mass decreased only in the hydrolyzed whey protein group.

While more work needs to be completed to fully determine the potential impact of hydrolyzed proteins on strength and body composition changes, this initial study suggests that hydrolyzed whey may be efficacious for decreasing body fat.

Finally, Saunders et al. The authors reported that co-ingestion of a carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate improved time-trial performance late in the exercise protocol and significantly reduced soreness and markers of muscle damage.

Two excellent reviews on the topic of hydrolyzed proteins and their impact on performance and recovery have been published by Van Loon et al. The prevalence of digestive enzymes in sports nutrition products has increased during recent years with many products now containing a combination of proteases and lipases, with the addition of carbohydrates in plant proteins.

Proteases can hydrolyze proteins into various peptide configurations and potentially single amino acids. It appears that digestive enzyme capabilities and production decrease with age [ ], thus increasing the difficulty with which the body can break down and digest large meals.

Digestive enzymes could potentially work to promote optimal digestion by allowing up-regulation of various metabolic enzymes that may be needed to allow for efficient bodily operation. Further, digestive enzymes have been shown to minimize quality differences between varying protein sources [ ].

Individuals looking to increase plasma peak amino acid concentrations may benefit from hydrolyzed protein sources or protein supplemented with digestive enzymes. However, more work is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy of digestive enzymes.

Despite a plethora of studies demonstrating safety, much concern still exists surrounding the clinical implications of consuming increased amounts of protein, particularly on renal and hepatic health. The majority of these concerns stem from renal failure patients and educational dogma that has not been rewritten as evidence mounts to the contrary.

Certainly, it is clear that people in renal failure benefit from protein-restricted diets [ ], but extending this pathophysiology to otherwise healthy exercise-trained individuals who are not clinically compromised is inappropriate.

Published reviews on this topic consistently report that an increased intake of protein by competitive athletes and active individuals provides no indication of hepato-renal harm or damage [ , ].

This is supported by a recent commentary [ ] which referenced recent reports from the World Health Organization [ ] where they indicated a lack of evidence linking a high protein diet to renal disease. Likewise, the panel charged with establishing reference nutrient values for Australia and New Zealand also stated there was no published evidence that elevated intakes of protein exerted any negative impact on kidney function in athletes or in general [ ].

Recently, Antonio and colleagues published a series of original investigations that prescribed extremely high amounts of protein ~3. The first study in had resistance-trained individuals consume an extremely high protein diet 4. A follow-up investigation [ ] required participants to ingest up to 3.

Their next study employed a crossover study design in twelve healthy resistance-trained men in which each participant was tested before and after for body composition as well as blood-markers of health and performance [ ].

In one eight-week block, participants followed their normal habitual diet 2. No changes in body composition were reported, and importantly, no clinical side effects were observed throughout the study.

Finally, the same group of authors published a one-year crossover study [ ] in fourteen healthy resistance-trained men. This investigation showed that the chronic consumption of a high protein diet i.

Furthermore, there were no alterations in clinical markers of metabolism and blood lipids. Multiple review articles indicate that no controlled scientific evidence exists indicating that increased intakes of protein pose any health risks in healthy, exercising individuals.

A series of controlled investigations spanning up to one year in duration utilizing protein intakes of up to 2.

In alignment with our previous position stand, it is the position of the International Society of Sports Nutrition that the majority of exercising individuals should consume at minimum approximately 1. The amount is dependent upon the mode and intensity of the exercise, the quality of the protein ingested, as well as the energy and carbohydrate status of the individual.

Concerns that protein intake within this range is unhealthy are unfounded in healthy, exercising individuals. An attempt should be made to consume whole foods that contain high-quality e.

The timing of protein intake in the period encompassing the exercise session may offer several benefits including improved recovery and greater gains in lean body mass. In addition, consuming protein pre-sleep has been shown to increase overnight MPS and next-morning metabolism acutely along with improvements in muscle size and strength over 12 weeks of resistance training.

Intact protein supplements, EAAs and leucine have been shown to be beneficial for the exercising individual by increasing the rates of MPS, decreasing muscle protein degradation, and possibly aiding in recovery from exercise.

In summary, increasing protein intake using whole foods as well as high-quality supplemental protein sources can improve the adaptive response to training. Campbell B, Kreider RB, Ziegenfuss T, La Bounty P, Roberts M, Burke D, et al.

International society of sports nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr.

Macdermid PW, Stannard SR. A whey-supplemented, high-protein diet versus a high-carbohydrate diet: effects on endurance cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Witard OC, Jackman SR, Kies AK, Jeukendrup AE, Tipton KD. Effect of increased dietary protein on tolerance to intensified training.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. D'lugos AC, Luden ND, Faller JM, Akers JD, Mckenzie AI, Saunders MJ. Supplemental protein during heavy cycling training and recovery impacts skeletal muscle and heart rate responses but not performance.

Article CAS Google Scholar. Breen L, Tipton KD, Jeukendrup AE. No effect of carbohydrate-protein on cycling performance and indices of recovery. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Saunders MJ, Moore RW, Kies AK, Luden ND, Pratt CA.

Carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate coingestions improvement of late-exercise time-trial performance. Valentine RJ, Saunders MJ, Todd MK, St Laurent TG. Influence of carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and indices of muscle disruption.

Van Essen M, Gibala MJ. Failure of protein to improve time trial performance when added to a sports drink.

Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Ivy JL, Res PT, Sprague RC, Widzer MO. Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. Saunders MJ, Kane MD, Todd MK. Effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage.

Saunders MJ, Luden ND, Herrick JE. Consumption of an oral carbohydrate-protein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents postexercise muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. PubMed Google Scholar. Romano-Ely BC, Todd MK, Saunders MJ, Laurent TS. Effect of an isocaloric carbohydrate-protein-antioxidant drink on cycling performance.

Beelen M, Zorenc A, Pennings B, Senden JM, Kuipers H, Van Loon LJ. Impact of protein coingestion on muscle protein synthesis during continuous endurance type exercise.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Andersen LL, Tufekovic G, Zebis MK, Crameri RM, Verlaan G, Kjaer M, et al. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength.

Metab Clin Exp. Bemben MG, Witten MS, Carter JM, Eliot KA, Knehans AW, Bemben DA. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. J Nutr Health Aging. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Davidson KS, Candow DG, Farthing J, Smith-Palmer T.

The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Denysschen CA, Burton HW, Horvath PJ, Leddy JJ, Browne RW. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Erskine RM, Fletcher G, Hanson B, Folland JP. Whey protein does not enhance the adaptations to elbow flexor resistance training.

Herda AA, Herda TJ, Costa PB, Ryan ED, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Muscle performance, size, and safety responses after eight weeks of resistance training and protein supplementation: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Following intense exercise, athletes should consume carbohydrate and protein e.

This eating strategy has been shown to supersaturate carbohydrate stores prior to competition and improve endurance exercise capacity [ 2 , 40 ]. Thus, the type of meal, amount of carbohydrate consumed, and timing of eating are important factors to maximize glycogen storage and in maintaining carbohydrate availability during training while also potentially decreasing the incidence of overtraining.

The ISSN has adopted a position stand on nutrient timing in [ ] that has been subsequently revised [ 13 ] and can be summarized with the following points:.

The importance of this strategy is increased when poor feeding or recovery strategies were employed prior to exercise commencement. Consequently, when carbohydrate delivery is inadequate, adding protein may help increase performance, mitigate muscle damage, promote euglycemia, and facilitate glycogen re-synthesis.

Ingesting efficacious doses 10—12 g of essential amino acids EAAs either in free form or as a protein bolus in 20—40 g doses 0. However, the size 0. Post-exercise ingestion immediately-post to 2 h post of high-quality protein sources stimulates robust increases in MPS.

Similar increases in MPS have been found when high-quality proteins are ingested immediately before exercise. Vitamins are essential organic compounds that serve to regulate metabolic and neurological processes, energy synthesis, and prevent destruction of cells.

Water-soluble vitamins consist of the entire complex of B-vitamins and vitamin C. Since these vitamins are water-soluble, excessive intake of these vitamins are eliminated in urine, with few exceptions e.

vitamin B6, which can cause peripheral nerve damage when consumed in excessive amounts. Table 1 describes the RDA, proposed ergogenic benefit, and summary of research findings for fat and water-soluble vitamins. Research has demonstrated that specific vitamins possess various health benefits e.

Alternatively, if an athlete is deficient in a vitamin, supplementation or diet modifications to improve vitamin status can consistently improve health and performance [ ]. For example, Paschalis and colleagues [ ] supplemented individuals who were low in vitamin C for 30 days and reported these individuals had significantly lower VO 2 Max levels than a group of males who were high in vitamin C.

Further, after 30 days of supplementation, VO 2 Max significantly improved in the low vitamin C cohort as did baseline levels of oxidative stress of oxidative stress.

Furthermore, while optimal levels of vitamin D have been linked to improved muscle health [ ] and strength [ ] in general populations, research studies conducted in athletes generally fail to report on the ergogenic impact of vitamin D in athletes [ , ].

However, equivocal evidence from Wyon et al. The remaining vitamins reviewed appear to have little ergogenic value for athletes who consume a normal, nutrient dense diet. Finally, athletes may desire to consume a vitamin or mineral for various health non-performance related reasons including niacin to elevate high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol levels and decrease risk of heart disease niacin , vitamin E for its antioxidant potential, vitamin D for its ability to preserve musculoskeletal function, or vitamin C to promote and maintain a healthy immune system.

Minerals are essential inorganic elements necessary for a host of metabolic processes. Minerals serve as structure for tissue, important components of enzymes and hormones, and regulators of metabolic and neural control.

Notably, acute changes in sodium, potassium and magnesium throughout a continued bout of moderate to high intensity exercise are considerable.

In these situations, athletes must work to ingest foods and fluids to replace these losses, while physiological adaptations to sweat composition and fluid retention will also occur to promote a necessary balance.

Like vitamins, when mineral status is inadequate, exercise capacity may be reduced and when minerals are supplemented in deficient athletes, exercise capacity has been shown to improve [ ]. However, scientific reports consistently fail to document a performance improvement due to mineral supplementation when vitamin and mineral status is adequate [ , , ].

Table 2 describes minerals that have been purported to affect exercise capacity in athletes. For example, calcium supplementation in athletes susceptible to premature osteoporosis may help maintain bone mass [ ].

Increasing dietary availability of salt sodium chloride during the initial days of exercise training in the heat helps to maintain fluid balance and prevent dehydration. Finally, zinc supplementation during training can support changes in immune status in response to exercise training.

However, there is little evidence that boron, chromium, magnesium, or vanadium affect exercise capacity or training adaptations in healthy individuals eating a normal diet. The most important nutritional ergogenic aid for athletes is water and limiting dehydration during exercise is one of the most effective ways to maintain exercise capacity.

Before starting exercise, it is highly recommended that individuals are adequately hydrated [ ]. When one considers that average sweat rates are reported to be 0. For this reason, it is critical that athletes adopt a mind set to prevent dehydration first by promoting optimal levels of pre-exercise hydration.

Throughout the day and without any consideration of when exercise is occurring, a key goal is for an athlete to drink enough fluids to maintain their body weight.

Next, athletes can promote optimal pre-exercise hydration by ingesting mL of water or sports drinks the night before a competition, another mL upon waking and then another — mL of cool water or sports drink 20—30 min before the onset of exercise.

Consequently, to maintain fluid balance and prevent dehydration, athletes need to plan on ingesting 0. This requires frequent every 5—15 min ingestion of 12—16 fluid ounces of cold water or a sports drink during exercise [ , , , , ]. Athletes should not depend on thirst to prompt them to drink because people do not typically get thirsty until they have lost a significant amount of fluid through sweat.

Additionally, athletes should weigh themselves prior to and following exercise training to monitor changes in fluid balance and then can work to replace their lost fluid [ , , , , ].

During and after exercise, athletes should consume three cups of water for every pound lost during exercise to promote adequate rehydration [ ]. A primary goal soon after exercise should be to completely replace lost fluid and electrolytes during a training session or competition.

Additionally, sodium intake in the form of glucose-electrolyte solutions vs. only drinking water and making food choices and modifications added salt to foods should be considered during the rehydration process to further promote euhydration [ ].

Finally, inappropriate and excessive weight loss techniques e. are considered dangerous and should be prohibited. Sport nutritionists, dietitians, and athletic trainers can play an important role in educating athletes and coaches about proper hydration methods and supervising fluid intake during training and competition.

Educating athletes and coaches about nutrition and how to structure their diet to optimize performance and recovery are key areas of involvement for sport dietitians and nutritionists. Currently, use of dietary supplements by athletes and athletic populations is widespread while their overall need and efficacy of certain ingredients remain up for debate.

Dietary supplements can play a meaningful role in helping athletes consume the proper amount of calories, macro- and micronutrients.

Dietary supplements are not intended to replace a healthy diet. Supplementation with these nutrients in clinically validated amounts and at opportune times can help augment the normal diet to help optimize performance or support adaptations towards a training outcome.

Sport dietitians and nutritionists must be aware of the current data regarding nutrition, exercise, and performance and be honest about educating their clients about results of various studies whether pro or con. Currently, misleading information is available to the public and this position stand is intended to objectively rate many of the available ingredients.

Additionally, athletes, coaches and trainers need to also heed the recommendations of scientists when recommendations are made according to the available literature and what will hopefully be free of bias.

We recognize that some ingredients may exhibit little potential to stimulate training adaptations or operate in an ergogenic fashion, but may favorably impact muscle recovery or exhibit health benefits that may be helpful for some populations.

These outcomes are not the primary focus of this review and consequently, will not be discussed with the same level of detail. Consequently, meal replacements should be used in place of a meal during unique situations and are not intended to replace all meals. Care should also be taken to make sure they do not contain any banned or prohibited nutrients.

The following section provides an analysis of the scientific literature regarding nutritional supplements purported to promote skeletal muscle accretion in conjunction with the completion of a well-designed exercise-training program.

An overview of each supplement and a general interpretation of how they should be categorized is provided throughout the text. Table 3 summarizes how every supplement discussed in this article is categorized.

However, within each category all supplements are ordered alphabetically. For example, increases in body mass and lean mass are desired adaptations for many American football or rugby players and may improve performance in these activities.

In contrast, decreases in body mass or fat mass may promote increases in performance such as cyclists and gymnasts whereby athletes such as wrestlers, weightlifters and boxers may need to rapidly reduce weight while maintaining muscle mass, strength and power.

HMB is a metabolite of the amino acid leucine. It is well-documented that supplementing with 1. The currently established minimal effective dose of HMB is 1.

To optimize HMB retention, its recommend to split the daily dose of 3 g into three equal doses of 1 g each with breakfast, lunch or pre-exercise, bedtime [ ]. From a safety perspective, dosages of 1. The effects of HMB supplementation in trained athletes are less clear with selected studies reporting non-significant gains in muscle mass [ , , ].

In this respect, it has been suggested by Wilson and colleagues [ 15 ] that program design periodized resistance training models and duration of supplementation minimum of 6 weeks likely operate as key factors. Before and after each supplementation period, body composition and performance parameters were assessed.

When HMB was provided, fat mass was significantly reduced while changes in lean mass were not significant between groups. The same research group published data of 58 highly trained males athletes who supplemented with either 3 g of calcium-HMB or placebo for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion [ ].

In this report, fat mass was found to be significantly reduced while fat-free mass was significantly increased. Finally, Durkalec-Michalski and investigators [ ] supplemented 42 highly-trained combat sport athletes for 12 weeks with either a placebo or 3 g of calcium-HMB in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion.

In conclusion, a growing body of literature continues to offer support that HMB supplementation at dosages of 1. In our view, the most effective nutritional supplement available to athletes to increase high intensity exercise capacity and muscle mass during training is creatine monohydrate.

Body mass increases are typically one to two kilograms greater than controls during 4—12 weeks of training [ ]. The gains in muscle mass appear to be a result of an improved ability to perform high intensity exercise enabling an athlete to train harder and thereby promote greater training adaptations and muscle hypertrophy [ , , , ].

The only clinically significant side effect occasionally reported from creatine monohydrate supplementation has been the potential for weight gain [ , , , ]. The ISSN position stand on creatine monohydrate [ 10 ] summarizes their findings as this:.

Creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic nutritional supplement currently available to athletes in terms of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not only safe, but has been reported to have a number of therapeutic benefits in healthy and diseased populations ranging from infants to the elderly.

If proper precautions and supervision are provided, creatine monohydrate supplementation in children and adolescent athletes is acceptable and may provide a nutritional alternative with a favorable safety profile to potentially dangerous anabolic androgenic drugs.

At present, creatine monohydrate is the most extensively studied and clinically effective form of creatine for use in nutritional supplements in terms of muscle uptake and ability to increase high-intensity exercise capacity.

The addition of carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein to a creatine supplement appears to increase muscular uptake of creatine, although the effect on performance measures may not be greater than using creatine monohydrate alone. Initially, ingesting smaller amounts of creatine monohydrate e.

Clinical populations have been supplemented with high levels of creatine monohydrate 0. Further research is warranted to examine the potential medical benefits of creatine monohydrate and precursors like guanidinoacetic acid on sport, health and medicine.

Research examining the impact of the essential amino acids on stimulating muscle protein synthesis is an extremely popular area. Theoretically, this may enhance increases in fat-free mass, but to date limited evidence exists to demonstrate that supplementation with non-intact sources of EAAs e.

Moreover, other research has indicated that changes in muscle protein synthesis may not correlate with phenotypic adaptations to exercise training [ ].

An abundance of evidence is available, however, to indicate that ingestion of high-quality protein sources can heighten adaptations to resistance training [ ].

While various methods of protein quality assessment exist, most of these approaches center upon the amount of EAAs that are found within the protein source, and in nearly all situations, the highest quality protein sources are those containing the highest amounts of EAAs.

To this point, a number of published studies are available that state the EAAs operate as a prerequisite to stimulate peak rates of muscle protein synthesis [ , , , ]. To better understand the impact of ingesting free-form amino acids versus an intact protein source, Katsanos et al. Protein accrual was greater when the amino acid dose was provided in an intact source.

While the EAAs are comprised of nine separate amino acids, some individual EAAs have received considerable attention for their potential role in impacting protein translation and muscle protein synthesis. In this respect, the branched-chain amino acids have been highlighted for their predominant role in stimulating muscle protein synthesis [ , ].

Interestingly, Moberg and investigators [ ] had trained volunteers complete a standardized bout of resistance training in conjunction with ingestion of placebo, leucine, BCAA or EAA while measuring changes in post-exercise activation of p70s6k.

They concluded that EAA ingestion led to a nine-fold greater increase in p70s6k activation and that these results were primarily attributable to the BCAAs. Finally, a study by Jackman et al. While significant, this magnitude of change was notably less than the post-exercise MPS responses seen when doses of whey protein that delivered similar amounts of the BCAAs were consumed [ 88 , ].

These outcomes led the authors to conclude that the full complement of EAAs was advised to maximally stimulate increases in MPS. Of all the interest captured by the BCAAs, leucine is accepted to be the primary driver of acute changes in protein translation.

In this respect, Dreyer et al. In this respect, Jager et al. A growing body of literature is available that suggests higher amounts of protein are needed by exercising individuals to optimize exercise training adaptations [ 11 , 83 , , ].

Collectively, these sources indicate that people undergoing intense training with the primary intention to promote accretion of fat-free mass should consume between 1. Tang and colleagues [ 95 ] conducted a classic study that examined the ability of three different sources of protein hydrolyzed whey isolate, micellar casein and soy isolate to stimulate acute changes in muscle protein synthesis both at rest and after a single bout of resistance exercise.

These authors concluded that all three protein sources significantly increased muscle protein synthesis rates both at rest and in response to resistance exercise. When this response is extrapolated over the course of several weeks, multiple studies have reported on the ability of different forms of protein to significantly increase fat-free mass while resistance training [ 70 , , , , , , ].

Cermak et al. Data from 22 separate published studies that included research participants were included in the analysis. These authors concluded that protein supplementation demonstrated a positive effect of fat-free mass and lower-body strength in both younger and older participants.

Similarly, Morton and investigators [ 83 ] published results from a meta-analysis that also included a meta-regression approach involving data from 49 studies and participants.

They concluded that the ability of protein to positively impact fat-free mass accretion increases up to approximately 1. Although more research is necessary in this area, evidence clearly indicates that protein needs of individuals engaged in intense training are elevated and consequently those athletes who achieve higher intakes of protein while training promote greater changes in fat-free mass.

Beyond the impact of protein to foster greater training-induced adaptations such as increases in strength and muscle mass, several studies have examined the ability of different types of protein to stimulate changes in fat-free mass [ , , , , ] while several studies and reviews have critically explored the role protein may play in achieving weight loss in athletes [ , ] as well as during periods of caloric restriction [ , ].

It is the position stand of ISSN that exercising individuals need approximately 1. ATP is the primary intracellular energy source and in addition, has extensive extracellular functions including the increase in skeletal muscle calcium permeability and vasodilation.

While intravenous administration of ATP is bioavailable [ ], several studies have shown that oral ATP is not systematically bioavailable [ ].

However, chronic supplementation with ATP increases the capacity to synthesize ATP within the erythrocytes without increasing resting concentrations in the plasma, thereby minimizing exercise-induced drops in ATP levels [ ].

Oral ATP supplementation has demonstrated initial ergogenic properties, after a single dose, improving total weight lifted and total number of repetitions [ ]. ATP may increase blood flow to the exercising muscle [ ] and may reduce fatigue and increase peak power output during later bouts of repeated bouts exercise [ ].

ATP may also support greater recovery and lean mass maintenance under high volume training [ ], however, this has only been reported in one previous study. In addition, ATP supplementation in clinical populations has been shown to improve strength, reduce pain after knee surgery, and reduce the length of the hospital stay [ ].

However, given the limited number of human studies of ATP on increasing exercise-induced gains in muscle mass, more chronic human training studies are warranted.

Leucine, in particular, is recognized as a keystone of sorts that when provided in the correct amounts 3—6 g activates the mTORC1 complex resulting in favorable initiation of translation [ ]. To highlight this impact for leucine, varying doses of whey protein and leucine levels were provided to exercising men at rest and in response to an acute bout of lower-body resistance exercise to examine the muscle protein synthetic response.

Interestingly, when a low dose of whey protein 6. While the g dose of whey protein did favorably sustain the increases in muscle protein synthesis, the added leucine highlights an important role for leucine in stimulating muscle protein synthesis in response to resistance exercise [ ].

For these reasons, it has been speculated that the leucine content of whey protein and other high-quality protein sources have been suggested to be primary reasons for their ability to stimulate favorable adaptations to resistance training [ , ].

Theoretically, BCAA supplementation during intense training may help minimize protein degradation and thereby lead to greater gains in or limit losses of fat-free mass, but only limited evidence exists to support this hypothesis. Bigard and associates [ ] reported that BCAA supplementation appeared to minimize loss of muscle mass in subjects training at altitude for 6 weeks.

Alternatively, Spillane and colleagues [ ] reported that 8 weeks of resistance training while supplementing with either 9 g of BCAAs or placebo did not impact body composition or muscle performance.

Most recently, Jackman et al. As mixed outcomes cloud the ability to make clear determinations, studies strongly suggest a mechanistic role for BCAAs and in particular leucine, yet translational data fails to consistently support the need for BCAA supplementation.

Alternatively, multiple studies do support BCAAs ability to mitigate recovery from damaging exercise while their ability to favorably impact resistance training adaptations needs further research. This will be discussed in a later section. Phosphatidic acid PA is a diacyl-glycerophospholipid that is enriched in eukaryotic cell membranes and it can act as a signalling lipid [ ].

Interestingly, PA has been repeatedly shown to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signalling in muscle; an effect which ultimately leads to increases in muscle protein synthesis. For instance, Fang et al. Hornberger et al. Hoffman et al. Joy et al. A third study confirmed the beneficial effects of PA on exercise-induced gains in lean body mass [ ].

The currently established dose of PA is mg per day and another study investigating lower doses, and mg per day, failed to show significant benefits on lean body mass [ ].

Hence, preliminary human research suggests that PA supplementation can increase anabolic signalling in skeletal muscle and enhance gains in muscle mass with resistance training. Given that PA supplementation studies are in their infancy relative to other muscle-building supplements e. Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of the amino acid L-arginine, has shown different biological effects in different in vitro and animal models [ ] indicating potential benefits in an athletic population.

Agmatine is thought to improve insulin release and glucose uptake, assist in the secretion of luteinizing hormone, influence the nitric oxide signalling pathway, offer protection from oxidative stress, and is potentially involved in neurotransmission [ ].

It is mostly found in fermented foods [ ], with higher levels found in alcoholic beverages. Currently, nearly all research involving agmatine is commonly from animal research models and no human studies have been conducted to examine its impact on blood flow or impacting resistance training adaptations such as strength and body composition.

There does not appear to be any scientific evidence that Agmatine supports increases in lean body mass or muscular performance. α-ketoglutarate α-KG is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle that is involved in aerobic energy metabolism and may function to stimulate nitric oxide production.

There is some clinical evidence that α-KG may serve as an anticatabolic nutrient after surgery [ , ]. However, it is unclear whether α-KG supplementation during training may affect training adaptations.

Very little research has been conducted on just alpha-ketoglutarate in humans to examine exercise outcomes. For example, Little and colleagues [ ] supplemented with creatine, a combination of creatine, α-KG, taurine, BCAA and medium-chain triglycerides, or a placebo.

The combination of nutrients increased the maximal number of bench press repetitions completed and Wingate peak power while no changes were reported in the placebo group. Campbell and investigators [ ] supplemented 35 healthy trained men with 2 g of arginine and 2 g of α-KG or placebo in a double-blind manner while resistance training for 8 weeks.

Finally, Willoughby and colleagues [ ] examined the results of arginine α-KG supplementation in relation to increasing nitric oxide production vasodilation during resistance exercise , hemodynamics, brachial artery flow, circulating levels of l-arginine, and asymmetric dimethyl arginine in active males.

This study found that although plasma L-arginine increased, there was no significant impact of supplementation on nitric oxide production after a bout of resistance exercise. Due to the lack of research on α-KG examining its impact on exercise training adaptations, its use cannot be recommended at this time.

Arginine is commonly classified as a conditionally essential amino acid and has been linked to nitric oxide production and increases in blood flow that are purported to then stimulate enhanced nutrient and hormone delivery and favorably impact resistance training adaptations [ ].

To date, few studies have examined the independent impact of arginine on the ability to enhance fat-free mass increases while resistance training. Tang and colleagues [ ] used an acute model to examine the ability of an oral g dose of arginine to stimulate changes in muscle protein synthesis.

These authors reported that arginine administration failed to impact muscle protein synthesis or femoral artery blood flow. Growth hormone levels did rise in response to arginine ingestion, which contrasts with the findings of Forbes et al.

Regardless, the Tang study [ ] and others [ , ] failed to link the increase in growth hormone to changes in rates of muscle protein synthesis. Notably, other studies have also failed to show a change in blood flow after arginine ingestion, one of its key purported benefits [ , ].

Campbell and colleagues published outcomes from an 8 week resistance training study that supplemented healthy men in a double-blind fashion with either a placebo or 2 g of arginine and 2 g of α-ketoglutarate.

No changes in fat mass or fat-free mass were reported in this study. Therefore, due to the limited data of arginine supplementation on stimulating further increases of exercise in muscle mass, its use for is not recommended at this time.

Boron is a trace mineral whose physiological role is not clearly understood. A number of proposed functions have been touted for boron: vitamin D metabolism, macromineral metabolism, immune support, increase testosterone levels and promote anabolism [ ].

Due to a lack of scientific evidence surrounding boron, no official Daily Reference Intake DRI is established. Several studies have evaluated the effects of boron supplementation during training on strength and body composition alterations.

However, these studies conducted on male bodybuilders indicate that boron supplementation 2. Further, two investigations [ , ] examined the impact of boron supplementation on bone mineral density in athletic and sedentary populations. In both investigations, boron supplementation did not significantly influence bone mineral density.

Therefore, due to the limited findings on boron supplementation, its use is not recommended, and more research is warranted to determine its physiological impact.

Chromium is a trace mineral that is actively involved in macronutrient metabolism. Clinical studies have suggested that chromium potentiates the effects of insulin, particularly in diabetic populations.

Due to its close interaction with insulin, chromium supplementation has been theorized to impact anabolism and exercise training adaptations. Initial research was promising with chromium supplementation being associated with increases in muscle and strength, particularly in women [ , , ].

Most recently, chromium supplementation was investigated for its ability to impact glycogen synthesis after high-intensity exercise and was found to exert no impact over recovery of glycogen [ ]. In summary, chromium supplementation appears to exert very little potential for its ability to stimulate or support improvements in fat-free mass.

Animal studies indicate that adding CLA to dietary feed decreases body fat, increases muscle and bone mass, has anti-cancer properties, enhances immunity, and inhibits progression of heart disease [ , , ].

Although animal studies are impressive [ , , ], human studies, at best, suggest a modest ability, independent of exercise or diet changes, of CLA to stimulate fat loss [ , , , ]. Moreover, very little research has been conducted on CLA to better understand if any scenario exists where its use may be justified.

Initial work by Pinkoski et al. Two studies are available that supplemented exercising younger [ ] and older individuals [ ] with a combination of CLA and creatine and reported significant improvements in strength and body composition, but these results are thought to be the result of creatine.

Currently, it seems there is little evidence that CLA supplementation during training can affect lean tissue accretion and has limited efficacy [ ]. Also known as aspartate, aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid.

Two isomers exist within aspartic acid: L-Aspartic acid and D-Aspartic acid. D-Aspartic acid is thought to help boost athletic performance and function as a testosterone booster.

It is also used to conserve muscle mass. While limited research is available in humans examining D-aspartic, Willoughby and Leutholtz [ ] published a study to determine the impact of D-aspartic acid in relation to testosterone levels and performance in resistance-trained males.

The results showed D-aspartic acid did not impact testosterone levels nor did it improve any aspect of performance. In agreement, Melville and colleagues [ ] had participants supplement with either three or 6 g of D-aspartic acid and concluded that neither dose of D-aspartic acid stimulated any changes in testosterone and other anabolic hormones.

Later, Melville et al. Based on the currently available literature, D-aspartic acid is not recommended to improve muscle health. Ecdysterones also known as ectysterone, 20 β-Hydroxyecdysterone, turkesterone, ponasterone, ecdysone, or ecdystene are naturally derived phytoecdysteroids i.

They are typically extracted from the herbs Leuza rhaptonticum sp. They can also be found in high concentrations in the herb Suma also known as Brazilian Ginseng or Pfaffia. Initial interest was generated for ecdysterones due to reports of research from Russia and Czechoslovakia that indicated a potential physiological benefit in insects and animals [ , , , ].

A review by Bucci on various herbals and exercise performance also mentioned suma ecdysterone [ ]. Unfortunately, the initial work was available in obscure journals with sub-standard study designs and presentation of results. In , Wilborn and coworkers [ ] completed what remains as the only study in humans to examine the impact of ecdysterones while resistance training.

Ecdysterones are not recommended for supplementation to increase training adaptations or performance. Fenugreek trigonella foenum-graecum is an Ayurvedic herb historically used to enhance masculinity and libido. Fenugreek extract has been shown to increase testosterone levels by decreasing the activity of the aromatase enzyme metabolizing testosterone into estradiol [ , ].

Initial research by Poole et al. After 8 weeks of supplementing and resistance training, significantly greater improvements in body fat, lower body strength, and upper body strength were observed.

Wankhede and colleagues [ ] reported a significant increase in repetitions performed to failure using the bench press and a reduction in body fat when mg Fenugreek extract was consumed while following a resistance training program. Initial research using Fenugreek extract suggests it may help improve resistance-training adaptations, but more research in different populations is needed before any further recommendations can be made.

Gamma oryzanol is a mixture of a plant sterol and ferulic acid theorized to increase anabolic hormonal responses, strength and muscle mass during training [ , ]. Although data are limited, one study reported no effect of 0. Most recently, Eslami and colleagues [ ] supplemented healthy male volunteers with either gamma oryzanol or placebo for 9 weeks while resistance training.

In this study, changes in body composition were not realized, but a significant increase in strength was found in the bench press and leg curl exercise. With limited research of mixed outcomes at this point, no conclusive recommendation can be made at this time as more research is needed to fully determine what impact, if any, gamma oryzanol supplementation may have in exercising individuals.

Glutamine is the most plentiful non-essential amino acid in the body and plays several important physiological roles [ 74 , , ]. Glutamine has been reported to increase cell volume and stimulate protein [ , , ] and glycogen synthesis [ ].

Initial research by Colker and associates [ ] reported that subjects who supplemented their diet with glutamine 5 g and BCAA 3 g enriched whey protein 40 g during resistance training promoted about a two pound greater gain in muscle mass and greater gains in strength than ingesting whey protein alone.

In contrast, Kerksick and colleagues [ ] reported no additional impact on strength, endurance, body composition and anaerobic power of combining 5 g of glutamine and 3 g of BCAAs to 40 g of whey protein in healthy men and women who resistance trained for 10 weeks.

In addition, Antonio et al. In a well-designed investigation, Candow and co-workers [ ] studied the effects of oral glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Thirty-one participants were randomly allocated to receive either glutamine 0. The authors concluded glutamine supplementation during resistance training had no significant effect on muscle performance, body composition or muscle protein degradation in young healthy adults.

While there may be other beneficial uses for glutamine supplementation i. gastrointestinal health and peptide uptake in stressed populations [ ] and, as mentioned previously, mitigation of soreness and recovery of lost force production [ ] , there does not appear to be any scientific evidence that it supports increases in lean body mass or muscular performance.

Growth hormone releasing peptides GHRP and other non-peptide compounds secretagogues facilitate growth hormone GH release [ , ], and can impact sleep patterns, food intake and cardiovascular functioning [ ] along with improvements in lean mass in clinical wasting states [ ].

These observations have served as the basis for development of nutritionally-based GH stimulators e. and continue to capture interest by sporting populations for their potential to impact growth hormone secretion, recovery and robustness of training [ ].

Finally, Chromiak and Antonio [ ] reported that oral ingestion of many secretagogues fail to consistently stimulate hormone increases in growth hormone and fail to stimulate greater changes in muscle mass or strength.

Currently, there is no convincing scientific evidence that secretagogues support increases in lean body mass or muscular performance. Isoflavones are naturally occurring non-steroidal phytoestrogens that have a similar chemical structure as ipriflavone a synthetic flavonoid drug used in the treatment of osteoporosis [ , , ].

For this reason, soy protein which is an excellent source of isoflavones and isoflavone extracts have been investigated in the possible treatment of osteoporosis as well as their role in body composition changes and changes in cardiovascular health markers.

In this respect, multiple studies have supported the ability of isoflavone supplementation in older women alone [ ] and in combination with exercise over the course of 6—12 months to improve various body composition parameters [ , , ].

Findings from these studies have some applications to sedentary, postmenopausal women. However, there are currently no peer-reviewed data indicating that isoflavone supplementation affects exercise, body composition, or training adaptations in physically active individuals. For example, Wilborn and colleagues [ ] reported that 8 weeks of supplementing with isoflavones with resistance training did not significantly impact strength or body composition.

OKG via enteral feeding has been shown to significantly shorten wound healing time and improve nitrogen balance in severe burn patients [ , ]. A review by Cynober postulated that OKG may operate as a precursor to arginine and nitric oxide, but the overall lack of efficacy for arginine and other precursors limits the potential of OKG.

Because of its ability to improve nitrogen balance, OKG may provide some value for athletes engaged in intense training. However, no significant differences were observed in lower body strength, training volume, gains in muscle mass, or fasting insulin and growth hormone. Testosterone and growth hormone are two primary hormones in the body that serve to promote gains in muscle mass i.

Testosterone also promotes male sex characteristics e. Low level anabolic steroids are often prescribed by physicians to prevent loss of muscle mass for people with various diseases and illnesses [ , , , , , , , , , , , ].

Research has generally shown that use of anabolic steroids and growth hormone during training can promote gains in strength and muscle mass [ , , , , , , , , , , , , ]. However, a number of potentially life threatening adverse effects of steroid abuse have been reported including liver and hormonal dysfunction, hyperlipidemia high cholesterol , increased risk to cardiovascular disease, and behavioral changes i.

Some of the adverse effects associated with the use of these agents are irreversible, particularly in women [ ]. For these reason, anabolic steroids have been banned by most sport organizations and should be avoided unless prescribed by a physician to treat an illness.

Prohormones e. are naturally derived precursors to testosterone or other anabolic steroids. Their use has been suggested to naturally boost levels of these anabolic hormones. While data is available demonstrating increases in testosterone [ , ], virtually no evidence exists demonstrating heightened training adaptations in younger men with normal hormone levels.

In fact, most studies indicate that they do not affect testosterone and that some may actually increase estrogen levels and reduce HDL-cholesterol [ , , , , , , , ].

On a related note, studies have examined the ability of various ingredients to increase testosterone via inhibition of aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase [ ]. Rohle et al. Consequently, although there may be some potential applications for older individuals to replace diminishing androgen levels, it appears that prohormones have no training value.

Use of nutritional supplements containing prohormones will result in a positive drug test for anabolic steroids. Use of supplements knowingly or unknowingly containing prohormones have been believed to have contributed to a number of recent positive drug tests among athletes.

Consequently, care should be taken to make sure that any supplement an athlete considers taking does not contain prohormone precursors particularly if their sport bans and tests for use of such compounds. Companies such as Informed Choice www. org and National Sanitation Foundation, NSF aka, NSF Certified for Sport www.

org have developed assurance programs to test and screen various nutrition products. It is noteworthy to mention that many prohormones are not lawful for sale in the USA since the passage of the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of The distinctive exception to this is dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA , which has been the subject of numerous clinical studies in aging populations.

Myostatin or growth differentiation factor 8 GDF-8 is a transforming growth factor known as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy [ ]. Since , no additional research has been published that examined the impact of any nutritional ingredient or strategy to inhibit myostatin expression.

In humans, myostatin clearly plays a role in regulating skeletal muscle mass. For example, a study by Ivey and colleagues [ ] reported that female athletes with a less common myostatin allele experienced greater gains in muscle mass during training and reduced atrophy during detraining.

Interestingly, no such changes were reported for men. These results were corroborated by Wilborn et al. As it stands, there is currently no published data supporting the use of sulfo-polysaccharides or any other ingredient touted to act as a myostatin inhibitor for their ability to increase strength or muscle mass.

Consequently, tribulus is marketed as a supplement that can increase testosterone and promote greater gains in strength and muscle mass during training. In human research models, several studies have indicated that tribulus supplementation alone [ , ] or in combination with other segragotogues and androgen precusors [ , ] appears to have no effects on body composition or strength during resistance training.

Vanadyl sulfate is a trace mineral that has been found to affect insulin-sensitivity similar to chromium and may affect protein and glucose metabolism [ , ].

In this regard, reports have highlighted the potential efficacy and support for vanadium to improve insulin sensitivity [ ] and assist with the management of diabetes [ ]. In relation to its potential ability to impact protein and glucose metabolism, vanadyl sulfate supplementation has been purported to positively impact strength and muscle mass [ 74 , ].

However, no studies are available that support the ability of vanadyl sulfate supplementation to impact strength or muscle mass in non-diabetic individuals who are currently resistance training [ , ]. The main ingredients in ZMA formulations are zinc monomethionine aspartate, magnesium aspartate, and vitamin B ZMA supplementation is based upon the rationale that zinc and magnesium deficiency may reduce the production of testosterone and insulin like growth factor IGF Consequently, ZMA supplementation is advocated for its ability to increase testosterone and IGF-1, which is further suggested to promote recovery, anabolism, and strength during training.

Two studies with contrasting outcomes have examined the ability of acute ZMA administration to increase anabolic hormone concentrations.

Initially, Brilla and Conte [ ] reported that a zinc-magnesium formulation increased testosterone and IGF-1 two anabolic hormones leading to greater strength gains in football players participating in spring training while Koehler et al.

Wilborn et al. It is noted that previous deficiencies in zinc may negatively impact endogenous production of testosterone secondary to its role in androgen metabolism and steroid receptor interaction [ ]. To this point, Brilla and Conte [ ] did report depletions of both zinc and magnesium, thus increases in testosterone levels could have been attributed to deificient nutritional status rather than a pharmacologic effect.

More research is needed to further evaluate the role of ZMA on body composition and strength during training before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Several nutritional supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance.

Throughout this section, emphasis is placed upon results that directly measured some attribute of performance. In situations where a nutrient is purported to stimulate increases in fat-free mass and enhance performance i. ß-alanine, a non-essential amino acid, has ergogenic potential based on its role in carnosine synthesis [ 12 ].

Carnosine is a dipeptide comprised of the amino acids, histidine and ß-alanine, that naturally occur in large amounts in skeletal muscles.

Carnosine is believed to be one of the primary muscle-buffering substances available in skeletal muscle. Studies have demonstrated that taking four to 6 g of ß-alanine orally, in divided doses, over a day period is effective in increasing carnosine levels [ , ], while more recent studies have demonstrated increased carnosine and efficacy up to 12 g per day [ ].

According to the ISSN position statement, evaluating the existing body of ß-alanine research suggests improvements in exercise performance with more pronounced effects on activities lasting one to 4 min; improvements in neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and lastly; potential benefits in tactical personnel [ 12 ].

Other studies have shown that ß-alanine supplementation can increase the number of repetitions one can do [ ], increase lean body mass [ ], increase knee extension torque [ ], and increase training volume [ ]. In fact, one study also showed that adding ß-alanine to creatine improves performance over creatine alone [ ].

While it appears that ß-alanine supplementation can improve performance, other studies have failed to demonstrate a performance benefit [ , ].

Caffeine is a naturally derived stimulant found in many nutritional supplements typically as guarana, bissey nut, or kola. Caffeine can also be found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, and chocolate. Caffeine has also been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid for aerobic and anaerobic exercise with a documented ability to increase energy expenditure and promote weight loss [ 14 ].

Research investigating the effects of caffeine on time trial performance in trained cyclists found that caffeine improved speed, peak power, and mean power [ ]. Similar results were observed in a recent study that found cyclists who ingested a caffeine drink prior to a time trial demonstrated improvements in performance [ , ].

Studies indicate that ingestion of caffeine e. In addition to the apparent positive effects on endurance performance, caffeine has also been shown to improve repeated sprint performance benefiting the anaerobic athlete [ , , ]. For example, Trexler, et al.

Similarly, Beck and investigators [ ] provided resistance trained males with mg caffeine 2. Maximal upper-body strength, however, was improved.

In contrast, other studies have indicated that caffeine may favorably impact muscular performance. For example, Goldstein et al. Studies by Duncan and colleagues [ , , , ] have examined the impact of caffeine on strength and endurance performance as well various parameters of mood state while performing maximal resistance exercise.

Briefly, these authors have reported improvements in strength and repetitions to failure using the bench press [ , ] and other exercises [ , ].

For example, trained subjects have demonstrated more ergogenic effects compared to untrained subjects [ , ]. Also, people who drink caffeinated drinks regularly, however, appear to experience less ergogenic benefits from caffeine [ ].

Some concern has been expressed that ingestion of caffeine prior to exercise may contribute to dehydration, although several studies have not supported this concern [ , , ]. Caffeine, from anhydrous and coffee sources are both equally ergogenic [ ]. In summary, consistent scientific evidence is available to indicate that caffeine operates as an ergogenic aid in several sporting situations.

Sports nutrition guidelines -

Check out this infographic for foods to boost athletic performance. Read about how athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a balanced diet including a variety of foods in this printable fact sheet.

The WAVE Sport Nutrition Curriculum uses youth's interest in sports to teach them about healthy eating and hydration to fuel a healthy, active body for life.

Learn how nutrition before, during, and after sport competitions can improve athletic performance. An official website of the United States government.

Here's how you know. dot gov icon Official websites use. https icon Secure. Find information on nutrition and athletic performance. Bodybuilding and Performance Enhancement Supplements: What You Need To Know.

HHS , National Institutes of Health , National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Learn about the safety and effectiveness of bodybuilding and athletic supplements. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. HHS , National Institutes of Health , National Library of Medicine , MedlinePlus.

Avoid drinking carbonated drinks or juice because they could give you a stomachache while you're training or competing. Don't use energy drinks and other caffeine -containing drinks, like soda, tea, and coffee, for rehydration. You could end up drinking large amounts of caffeine, which can increase heart rate and blood pressure.

Too much caffeine can leave an athlete feeling anxious or jittery. Caffeine also can cause headaches and make it hard to sleep at night. These all can drag down your sports performance.

Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over the past several days and weeks. You can boost your performance even more by paying attention to the food you eat on game day. Focus on a diet rich in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and low in fat.

Everyone is different, so get to know what works best for you. You may want to experiment with meal timing and how much to eat on practice days so that you're better prepared for game day.

KidsHealth For Teens A Guide to Eating for Sports. en español: Guía de alimentación para deportistas. Medically reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD. Listen Play Stop Volume mp3 Settings Close Player. Larger text size Large text size Regular text size.

Eat Extra for Excellence The good news about eating for sports is that reaching your peak performance level doesn't take a special diet or supplements. Athletes and Dieting Teen athletes need extra fuel, so it's usually a bad idea to diet.

Eat a Variety of Foods When it comes to powering your game for the long haul, it's important to eat healthy, balanced meals and snacks to get the nutrients your body needs. Vital Vitamins and Minerals Besides getting the right amount of calories, teen athletes need a variety of nutrients from the foods they eat to keep performing at their best.

Calcium and iron are two important minerals for athletes: Calcium helps build the strong bones that athletes depend on.

Calcium — a must for protecting against stress fractures — is found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese.

Iron carries oxygen to muscles. To get the iron you need, eat lean meat, fish, and poultry; leafy green vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active teens, but most get plenty through a healthy diet.

Carb Charge Carbohydrates are an excellent source of fuel. Fat Fuel Everyone needs some fat each day, and this is extra true for athletes. Skip the Supplements Sports supplements promise to improve sports performance.

Ditch Dehydration Speaking of dehydration , water is as important to unlocking your game power as food. Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over the past several days and weeks.

Here are some tips: Eat a meal 3 to 4 hours before activity. Include plenty of carbs and some protein but keep the fat low. In This Section:. Trending Topic Nutrition. The performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies.

ACSM has created a number of resources around nutrition for both the competitive and recreational athlete. When seeking personalized nutritional information and guidance, ACSM recommends consulting with a licensed nutrition or dietary professional such as an LD, RDN, or CSSD.

Featured Resource: ACSM's Nutrition for Exercise Science This clear and highly applied overview of exercise nutrition illustrates difficult concepts using real-world examples and case studies that allow students to put learning into practice.

Expand all Collapse all. Earn continuing education credits CECs by taking these courses through ACSM's ceOnline! A Nutritionist's View CEC Course Bundle A Nutritionist's View CEC Course Bundle 2 A Nutritionist's View CEC Course Bundle 3 PINES Symposium: Sport Nutrition Myth Busters Nutrition and Ergogenic Aids ACSM Annual Meeting Nutrition Content No CECs Awarded ACSM Summit Sessions Summit - Fueling Woman's Health at the Critical Stages of Life Summit - Is it Science or Sensationalism?

This clear and highly Spotts overview of exercise nutrition illustrates nutfition concepts using guiddelines examples nutritoin Sports nutrition guidelines studies that Sprts Sports nutrition guidelines Fat burn legs put learning into practice. Well-known author Dan Sporhs draws Injury rehab meal plan his Sports nutrition guidelines guidelibes as an instructor, scientist, and practitioner to nutfition an engaging and factual resource that makes Sports nutrition guidelines nutrition of exercise science accessible. Written at a level appropriate for both exercise science majors and non-majors, this practical book is packed with helpful in-text learning aids and stunning visuals that bring sports nutrition concepts to life. Learn More. This comprehensive toolkit provides sports nutritionists with introductory materials covering fundamental sports nutrition topics, including athlete consultations and dietary analysis, nutrition monitoring, nutrition interventions and individualized meal planning. Practitioners will find checklists, decision trees, assessment worksheets and questionnaires, templates, nutritional breakdowns and a wealth of supporting research to help modify and adapt each tool to meet the unique needs of their athletes. The content was authored by GSSI Scientists Liam Brown, M. Journal of the International Society of Metabolism boosting foods to eat Nutrition nutgition 14Article number: 20 Cite this Sports nutrition guidelines. Guideelines details. The International Guidelinnes of Sports Nutrition ISSN provides Sports nutrition guidelines nutrifion and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:. An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis MPS and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise. Sports nutrition guidelines

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