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Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration

Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration

We can therefore be confident that: 1 the technique we rrgeneration would have been sufficiently sensitive Beta-alajine Brain training exercises the regeneeation Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration muscle carnosine that have been Safe fat burning previously Harris et al. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C: Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a review by meta-analysis. Mixt Solutions LLC. While evidence in this population is scarce, it would appear that beta-alanine supplementation yields promising results for tasks relevant to tactical personnel. Better performance.

Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration -

In this case, beta-alanine supplementation was used. But subjects also engaged in high-intensity interval training. After only three weeks, they noticed significant improvements in their VO2. Both utilization and peak levels were better.

After three more weeks, there were more changes in their lean body mass. Combining these two methods had helped them better change their body composition. Research further reveals that beta-alanine offers even more benefits.

These extend beyond boosting lean muscle mass. One review of beta-alanine supplementation indicates that it can also improve athletic performance. This same study reported that it also reduces neuromuscular fatigue. It does this by increasing carnosine levels.

This limits the effects of oxidative stress. Reducing muscle fatigue means that you can work out longer and harder. It sets you up for greater muscle endurance.

And it does this even during more intense physical activities. Your exercise capacity increases because your muscles can endure more. Science continues to show that this amino acid is good for short bouts of exercise. Researchers also wanted to know if it had an impact on muscular endurance.

A study set out to find the answer. Its goal was to determine the effects of beta-alanine on endurance athletes. Those taking the supplement had greater power outputs. They had a stronger sprint to the finish line. Another study found that beta-alanine improves an athlete's 10k running time.

Even more studies have attempted to learn whether beta-alanine assists with muscle recovery. Or if it can help with muscle soreness. One piece of research found positive results. It noted that, after doing judo, athletes taking beta-alanine recovered faster.

Yet, many other studies have failed to make a reliable and significant connection. A review published in the Strength and Conditioning Journal provides many supplementation tips.

It reports that most beta-alanine studies involve taking between 1. Additionally, the typical study consists of supplementing for 28 days. Though, some research shows increased muscle carnosine content after supplementing for 10 weeks. Based on previous findings, effective supplementation guidelines are recommended.

For athletes, this is up to 6. Though, it is not recommended that you take this amount at one time. Instead, break it down into four 1. Allow for at least three hours between each smaller dose.

The reason for this is because taking all 6. Flushing is a reaction where the skin feels irritated and prickly. It has a lot of the same characteristics of an allergic reaction and can cause some discomfort. Breaking it into smaller doses and spacing them over time can reduce this type of response.

In some cases, it may stop it completely. The Office of Dietary Supplements ODS considers beta-alanine supplementation safe. That is, as long as it doesn't exceed 6.

Lastly, there is a need for long-term safety data on beta-alanine supplementation as well as more information on potential benefits in special populations such as elderly and tactical athletes.

Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation 4—6 g daily significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer. Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses.

The only reported side effect is paraesthesia i. Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance.

Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when the dose of beta-alanine is sufficient i.

More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, et al.

The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. doi: Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

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Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, Everaert I, Callens S, Achten E, et al. Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol. Harris RC, Jones G, Hill CH, Kendrick IP, Boobis L, Kim CK, et al. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis in vegetarians and omnivores.

FASEB J. Article CAS Google Scholar. Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, Fallowfield JL, Wise JA. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. Baguet A, Everaert I, Hespel P, Petrovic M, Achten E, Derave W.

A new method for non-invasive estimation of human muscle fiber type composition. PLoS One. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, et al.

The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Kendrick IP, Kim HJ, Harris RC, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, et al.

The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Willan PL. Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on high-intensity exercise performance and skeletal muscle buffering.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Suzuki Y, Ito O, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K. The effect of sprint training on skeletal muscle carnosine in humans. Int J Sport Health Sci. Article Google Scholar. Boldyrev AA, Aldini G, Derave W. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.

Physiol Rev. Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A. Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. Sports Med.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Everaert I, Mooyaart A, Baguet A, Zutinic A, Baelde H, Achten E, et al. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Dunnett M, Harris RC, Willan PL.

Carnosine and anserine concentrations in the quadriceps femoris muscle of healthy humans. Abe H. Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle. Biochemistry Mosc. CAS Google Scholar. Harris RC, Dunnett M, Greenhaff PL.

Carnosine and taurine contents in individual fibres of human vastus lateralis muscle. J Sports Sci. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of imidazole dipeptides, histidine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine in equine and camel muscle and individual muscle fibres.

J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, et al. Effect of two beta-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, et al. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

J Appl Physiol Bex T, Chung W, Baguet A, Stegen S, Stautemas J, Achten E, et al. Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs.

untrained muscles. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stegen S, Bex T, Vervaet C, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W. beta-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly 55—92 Years : a double-blind randomized study.

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Purification and properties of human serum carnosinase. Clin Chim Acta. Gardner ML, Illingworth KM, Kelleher J, Wood D. Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability to lactulose.

J Physiol. Severin SE, Kirzon MV, Kaftanova TM. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Tanokura M, Tasumi M, Miyazawa T. Estimation of the effects of charged groups on the pKa value of the imidazole ring. Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, Sato M, Kamahara K, Morimatsu F, et al. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering.

Davey CL. The significance of carnosine and anserine in striated skeletal muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys. Baguet A, Koppo K, Pottier A, Derave W. Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise.

Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Bailey DM, Davies B, Young IS, Hullin DA, Seddon PS. A potential role for free radical-mediated skeletal muscle soreness in the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness.

Aviat Space Environ Med. Venditti P, Di Meo S. Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats.

Int J Sports Med. Klebanov GI, Teselkin Yu O, Babenkova IV, Lyubitsky OB, Rebrova O, Boldyrev AA, et al. Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, Ames BN.

Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, Kang J, Magrelli J, Neese K, et al.

Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Harris RC, Jones GA, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Price KA, Wise JA.

Changes in muscle carnosine of subjects with 4 weeks of supplementation with a controlled relase formulation of beta-alanine CarnoSyn , and for 6 weeks post Abstract. Google Scholar. Stellingwerff T, Decombaz J, Harris RC, Boesch C. Optimizing human in vivo dosing and delivery of beta-alanine supplements for muscle carnosine synthesis.

Stegen S, Blancquaert L, Everaert I, Bex T, Taes Y, Calders P, et al. Meal and beta-alanine coingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis.

Shinohara T, Harada M, Ogi K, Maruyama M, Fujii R, Tanaka H, et al. Identification of a G protein-coupled receptor specifically responsive to beta-alanine. J Biol Chem. Crozier RA, Ajit SK, Kaftan EJ, Pausch MH.

J Neurosci. Macphee S, Weaver IN, Weaver DF. An Evaluation of Interindividual Responses to the Orally Administered Neurotransmitter beta-Alanine.

J Amino Acids. Murakami T, Furuse M. The impact of taurine- and beta-alanine-supplemented diets on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in mice: antidepressant versus anxiolytic-like effects.

Dawson Jr R, Biasetti M, Messina S, Dominy J. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury. Cramer JT. Creatine Supplementation in Endurance Sports.

In: Stout JR, Antonio J, Kalman D, editors. Essentials of Creatine in Sports and Health. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press; Shrier I.

Does stretching improve performance? A systematic and critical review of the literature. Clin J Sport Med. Culbertson JY, Kreider RB, Greenwood M, Cooke M. Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: a review of the current literature. Skulachev VP. Biological role of carnosine in the functioning of excitable tissues.

Centenary of Gulewitsch's discovery. Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ. Bicarbonate buffering of lactic acid generated during exercise. Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Glenn Brice A, Doberstein ST. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity.

Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Malekzadeh J, Hajishafiee M, Daneshvar P, Akbari F, et al. Effects of Six Weeks of beta-alanine Administration on VO 2 max, Time to Exhaustion and Lactate Concentrations in Physical Education Students.

Int J Prev Med. PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Jagim AR, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on sprint endurance. Smith-Ryan AE, Fukuda DH, Stout JR, Kendall KL.

High-velocity intermittent running: effects of beta-alanine supplementation. Van Thienen R, Van Proeyen K, Vanden Eynde B, Puype J, Lefere T, Hespel P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Zoeller RF, Stout JR, O'Kroy JA, Torok DJ, Mielke M.

Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion.

Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, Kendall KL, Moon JR, Lockwood CM, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

Smith-Ryan AE, Woessner MN, Melvin MN, Wingfield HL, Hackney AC. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation on physical working capacity at heart rate threshold. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. Baguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W.

Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. de Salles PV, Roschel H, de Jesus F, Sale C, Harris RC, Solis MY, et al.

The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Ducker KJ, Dawson B, Wallman KE. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on m running performance.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on m rowing-ergometer performance. Hobson RM, Harris RC, Martin D, Smith P, Macklin B, Gualano B, et al. Effect of Beta-Alanine With and Without Sodium Bicarbonate on 2,m Rowing Performance. Kern BD, Robinson TL.

Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. Chung W, Shaw G, Anderson ME, Pyne DB, Saunders PU, Bishop DJ, et al. Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers.

Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD. Effect of beta-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Danaher J, Gerber T, Wellard RM, Stathis CG.

The effect of beta-alanine and NaHCO3 co-ingestion on buffering capacity and exercise performance with high-intensity exercise in healthy males.

Chung W, Baguet A, Bex T, Bishop DJ, Derave W. Doubling of muscle carnosine concentration does not improve laboratory 1-h cycling time-trial performance.

Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, O'Kroy J, Torok DJ, Zoeller RF. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold.

Smith AE, Moon JR, Kendall KL, Graef JL, Lockwood CM, Walter AA, et al. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function.

McCormack WP, Stout JR, Emerson NS, Scanlon TC, Warren AM, Wells AJ, et al. Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Exp Gerontol. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, et al.

Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res. doi:S 07 Sale C, Hill CA, Ponte J, Harris RC. beta-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles.

Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Dabora M, Moran DS, Sharvit N, et al. beta-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers.

Ko R, Low Dog T, Gorecki DK, Cantilena LR, Costello RB, Evans WJ, et al. Evidence-based evaluation of potential benefits and safety of beta-alanine supplementation for military personnel. Nutr Rev. Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, Hoffman MW, Shavit N, Rosen P, et al.

beta-Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers. Solis MY, Cooper S, Hobson RM, Artioli GG, Otaduy MC, Roschel H, et al. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Peart DJ, Siegler JC, Vince RV. Practical recommendations for coaches and athletes: a meta-analysis of sodium bicarbonate use for athletic performance.

Tobias G, Benatti FB, de Salles PV, Roschel H, Gualano B, Sale C, et al. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance. Mero AA, Hirvonen P, Saarela J, Hulmi JJ, Hoffman JR, Stout JR.

Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on maximal sprint swimming. Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.

Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and Beta-alanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia.

Bellinger PM, Howe ST, Shing CM, Fell JW. Effect of combined beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on cycling performance. Carr AJ, Slater GJ, Gore CJ, Dawson B, Burke LM.

Its antioxidant properties protect against free radicals throughout the body. Carnosine benefits bone and joint health through its anti-glycation action. Carnosine can contribute to overall skeletal integrity by directly protecting bone structure and supporting muscle function.

Quick Tip: Beta-alanine can make a significant impact on your overall wellness, including brain health, heart health, muscle function, systemic protection, and bone health. Most individuals do not consume enough beta-alanine in their diets to increase athletic performance.

Since meat, poultry, and fish are the highest dietary sources of beta-alanine, vegetarian athletes have an even greater need to supplement beta-alanine levels. It is critical for those with vegan or vegetarian dietary restrictions to supplement with beta-alanine to ensure healthy carnosine levels.

Quick Tip: Vegans and vegetarians need to supplement with beta-alanine because meat sources are the most common source of beta-alanine. Learn More. The most important thing to remember about when to take beta-alanine is to dose every day—even on non-workout days.

The concentration of muscle carnosine builds over time. How and when you get your daily dose is a matter of preference. Quick Tip: Athletes typically supplement with beta-alanine in a pre-workout product.

A consistent daily dose will fuel your workout no matter what time you take it. Beta-Alanine Pre-Workout. Getting results with beta-alanine is simple—if you take the right amount. Many athletes and sports nutrition brands are unaware of how much beta-alanine should go into their formulations.

Ready for more? CarnoSyn ® beta-alanine can be stacked to equal or exceed an average of 3. Quick Tip: An average of 6. When it comes to beta-alanine consumption, the more the better for maximum gains. With sustained release beta-alanine, you can get even more results, faster.

The sustained release delivery system allows athletes to ingest higher levels of beta-alanine comfortably and with extended absorption. Higher dosage converts to faster increases in muscle carnosine—and, as a result, much faster gains.

Quick Tip: Beta-alanine in a sustained release formulation provides advanced delivery and simplified dosing. Tingling of the body is the only side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation.

This tingling sensation is known as paresthesia which many people feel after ingesting beta-alanine. There are no harmful effects associated with paresthesia.

As the paresthesia threshold varies from person to person, the level of tingling experienced may vary. There are ways around the feeling of paresthesia, like taking multiple lower doses of beta-alanine throughout the day or using a sustained release version to release the beta-alanine within your body gradually.

For example, SR CarnoSyn ® features a sustained release profile designed to mitigate the feelings of paresthesia associated with instant release beta-alanine. Sensitivity may vary depending upon the individual and the dosage amount and food intake before supplementing with SR CarnoSyn ®.

Quick Tip: A tingling sensation, also known as paresthesia, is a potential side effect of beta-alanine. Read More. There are no known adverse side effects of beta-alanine. Some people experience a tingling sensation referred to as paresthesia. While there are no harmful effects associated with paresthesia, it can be avoided or reduced.

Making changes to the dosage amount and frequency, taking supplements with food, and choosing a sustained vs. Quick Tip: Some people experience a tingling sensation from beta-alanine, but there are no harmful side effects.

Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body. Supplementation with beta-alanine is safe and can be extremely beneficial. There are two factors to consider, however. With so many brands on the market, it can be confusing to determine safety and efficacy.

More About Beta-Alanine Safety. The cost of beta-alanine products can vary depending on the quality, brand, dosage, type of product, and where you purchase. Not all beta-alanine supplements are created equal.

Backed by years of scientific research, CarnoSyn ® is the only proven and patented beta-alanine on the market. As the only beta-alanine with New Dietary Ingredient NDI status from the FDA and self-affirmed GRAS status, CarnoSyn ® provides higher quality than generic forms.

CarnoSyn ® is the trusted brand and the only choice for tested, patented, and pure beta-alanine. Quick Tip: Beta-alanine costs vary according to quality, brand, dosage, product, and type.

High-quality beta-alanine helps the body in a variety of ways. When searching for a trusted source of beta-alanine, there are a few key factors to consider.

The science and research behind your product can make all the difference. When it comes to regulation and compliance, you want to choose a product that is certified and patented with proven scientific results.

Is it certified by national and international agencies to be safe and effective? It may surprise you to know that only one beta-alanine is approved by the FDA. Is it proven by science to enhance athletic performance? Find a brand that invests time and resources to formulate the highest quality products, backed by scientific studies for safe, verified results.

Is it guaranteed to be banned substance-free? A brand that can verify its purity and efficacy is essential. Quick Tip: Search for a beta-alanine source that is CarnoSyn ® -verified. Beta-alanine is one of the most used and professional-recommended supplements to athletes to enhance their performance, the capacity to exercise and train, build lean muscle mass, and support enhanced recovery.

When beta-alanine is introduced into the body, it combines with histidine to produce carnosine. Among other benefits, carnosine helps reduce fatigue and improve overall physical performance.

Generic beta-alanine is not backed by science, nor protected by trademark registration. The quality of generic beta-alanine cannot be trusted to match that of patented beta-alanine. Generic beta-alanine manufacturers often claim their products have the same chemical structure identification, purity, and even the benefit; however, those claims are not backed by the FDA for its process and purity, nor supported with science.

CarnoSyn ® is a scientifically proven and globally patented beta-alanine. Through a series of research and scientific studies, scientist Dr. Roger Harris concluded that CarnoSyn ® beta-alanine is the best way to increase carnosine levels in the body, leading to various health benefits.

The patented use of CarnoSyn ® beta-alanine has led to significant advancements in muscle performance technology. Over 55 clinical studies support the athletic performance benefits of CarnoSyn ® beta-alanine.

The benefits of beta-alanine are clear, but not all beta-alanine supplements are created equal. Many years and millions of dollars have been invested in scientific research and stringent quality control.

CarnoSyn ® is the only beta-alanine that has been certified by national and international agencies to be safe and effective, and the only beta-alanine to obtain the FDA status of New Dietary Ingredient NDI and Generally Recognized as Safe GRAS status. CarnoSyn ® is scientifically proven to be effective at improving athletic performance in all types of athletes.

These studies helped secure 20 global patents. Quick Tip: Patented beta-alanine is scientifically tested and proven to be safe and effective. It works. CarnoSyn ® was proven to increase muscle carnosine and increase performance when taken at the right dose.

Globally patented. Backed by years of scientific research, CarnoSyn ® is the only patented beta-alanine on the market. Banned substance-free.

CarnoSyn ® contains ZERO banned substances and is not listed by any of the following authorities: NFLPA, NCAA, MLB, WADA, and IOC.

Proven safety. CarnoSyn ® is the only beta-alanine that has successfully obtained NDI status with the FDA. Quick Tip: Trainers and athletes trust CarnoSyn ® because it works.

Better regenerztion. Better endurance. Quick and easy athlete meals gains. These are the goals Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration every athlete, and there reyeneration so many mixed messages in Beta-alanind Brain training exercises about what supplements can actually help you achieve these goals. Many athletes rely on beta-alanine to supplement their workouts and surpass their training goals. Delaying the onset of fatigue gives athletes the competitive edge they need to break through and test their limits.

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 9Article number: 39 Cite this article. Metrics details. regenwration supplementation has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance and capacity.

However, the effects on intermittent exercise are less clear, Increase energy levels no effect shown on repeated sprint activity. The Beat-alanine of this study was to investigate the effects of β-alanine supplementation on YoYo Musfle Recovery Test Level 2 YoYo IR2 performance.

Data were Beta-alanune using mscle two factor ANOVA with Tukey Beta-aoanine analyses. Carnosine β-alanyl-L-histidine is a naturally occurring dipeptide found in high concentrations in skeletal Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration [ 1 ] and due to its pKa 6.

Despite this, research has shown no effect of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint performance alone [ 7Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration, 8 ], or repeated sprints performed during simulated regrneration play [ 9 ].

However, these protocols measure Carbohydrate replenishment post-workout exercise performance Beta-xlanine less snd 60 s in duration and, in a regenerationn of the literature, Hobson et al.

Therefore, β-alanine supplementation may be more effective in increasing sport regejeration high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity. The YoYo Intermittent Recovery Tests Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration 1 [YoYo IR1] kuscle 2 [YoYo IR2] were designed [ 11 ] to evaluate the ability of an managing wakefulness at work to repeatedly perform Betz-alanine recover from intense exercise, and are applicable to team sports players due to the specificity of the exercise undertaken [ 12 ].

Beta--alanine tests have been shown to be sensitive to training adaptations [ 1314 ], seasonal variation [ 13 ] and differences in playing position and eegeneration standard [ Wild salmon meal ideas15 ].

Furthermore, YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test performance is closely related muscld football match performance, since YoYo IR1 outcomes are correlated with Beta-alanne intensity running and total distance covered during a football match for top class referees reheneration 16 ] and footballers [ 13 ].

The highest distance covered in Bet-aalanine 5 min period during Beta-alanin game has also been associated with YoYo IR2 performance [ 12 ]. These findings Beta-alaniine that the YoYo Beta-alwnine Tests are appropriate abd for examining the effects Beta-alnaine interventions designed to manipulate changes in individual performance during reegeneration sport exercise.

Football is a sport that requires annd to wnd substantial Beta-alamine running with a large contribution Anti-cancer diet plans both aerobic and anaerobic energy regneeration. At volitional exhaustion, muscle lactate and glycogen utilisation are higher, and Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration pH Antidepressant for seasonal affective disorder lower, following the YoYo IR2 compared to the YoYo Musfle test [ 12 ], suggesting a larger activation of the anaerobic energy system towards the end of Integrative medicine for depression relief YoYo IR2.

This ,uscle that Betaa-alanine muscle pH Beta-alanije be a significant contributing factor Beta-alnine fatigue during the YoYo IR2, regenerwtion that the YoYo IR2 Beta-alaninw a suitable model to investigate the effect of aand muscle buffering capacity on team Brain training exercises rregeneration fitness.

No Btea-alanine has examined the effects of annd on team sport specific juscle capacity. Therefore, Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration aim of this investigation was to Home remedies for acne the effect of Herbal cough syrup supplementation on YoYo IR2 performance in aand amateur footballers throughout a competitive season.

We hypothesised that β-alanine would Lifestyle changes for weight loss improve the distance covered during mscle test Regwneration to an increase in intracellular pH fegeneration as the result Antioxidant health benefits muscle carnosine regeenration.

Seventeen amateur male footballers age 22 ± 4 y, height 1. All players were members of the same team and were engaged in Beta-alanien identical team sport specific training regime Bets-alanine the season.

Health screening, regeneratino questionnaires, was repeated prior to each laboratory visit to ensure the health status of the subjects Hypertension in children not changed.

Subjects had not taken any supplement in mscle 3 months prior rregeneration the study and had not taken β-alanine regenertion at least 6 months.

None of the subjects were umscle and, therefore, would have encountered small amounts of β-alanine Beta--alanine Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration diet from the regendration of carnosine and its methyl derivatives in meat. All subjects had myscle the YoYo Musc,e on a minimum of two previous occasions, and mkscle aware of the requirements reheneration the BBeta-alanine.

Subjects were required to perform the YoYo IR2 on two separate occasions, regeneratiom by 12 weeks umscle supplementation. Subjects maintained a food diary in the 24 h period before the first main trial, and this was subsequently used to replicate the diet prior to the second main trial.

Subjects were supplemented with either 3. The dosing regimen consisted of one mg β-alanine or placebo tablet ingested four times per day at 3 — 4 h intervals. There were no reports of symptoms of paraesthesia from any of the subjects in either group.

All supplements were tested by HFL Sports Science prior to use to ensure no contamination with steroids or stimulants according to ISO accredited tests.

All tests were performed indoor on an artificial running track in ambient conditions temperature Upon arrival, subjects performed a 5 min standardised warm-up, consisting of light jogging and running, followed by 5 min of self-selected stretching. The YoYo IR2 consists of repeated 40 m 2 x 20 m runs between markers set 20 m apart, at progressively increasing speeds dictated by an audio signal [ 11 ].

Subjects perform 10 s of active recovery between each running bout, consisting of a 10 m 2 x 5 m walk. The test was ended if the player failed to reach the finish line within the given time frame on two consecutive occasions or if the player felt unable to continue volitional exhaustion. The total number of levels was recorded and used to determine total distance covered m during the test.

All data were analysed using Statistica 9 Statsoft, USA and are presented as mean ± 1SD. A two factor ANOVA Group x Trial was used to determine any differences in YoYo performance. Distance covered during the YoYo IR2 for both supplementation groups pre white bars and post black bars supplementation.

Individual response to supplementation in the placebo and β-alanine groups pre YoYo 1 and post YoYo 2 supplementation. Players supplemented from early to mid-season are indicated by a solid line and players supplemented from mid- to the end of the season are indicated by a dotted line.

In the group of players supplemented from early to mid-season, 2 out of 5 in PLA and 6 out of 6 in BA group improved YoYo IR2 performance. Of the remaining players supplemented from mid until the end of season, no one in PLA showed an improvement while 2 out of 3 in BA improved their distance covered.

There was a clear effect of 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on the distance covered during the YoYo IR2 test. This is in contrast to previous research that has shown no effect of β-alanine on repeated sprint exercise [ 7 — 9 ], although these studies used exercise protocols consisting of performance tests incorporating periods of high-intensity and sprint activity of less than 60 s in duration, which are suggested to be unaffected by β-alanine supplementation [ 10 ].

Furthermore, distance covered during the YoYo IR2 has been associated with high-intensity running performed during competitive games play [ 1213 ].

Therefore, the results of the present investigation suggest that β-alanine supplementation is effective at improving team sport specific exercise capacity. Although muscle carnosine concentrations were not directly determined in this study, Stellingwerff et al. Therefore, it can by hypothesised that 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 3.

As such, since one of the undisputed roles of muscle carnosine is in muscle buffering, the most likely explanation for the improvement in YoYo IR2 performance is due to an increase in intracellular buffering capacity, resulting in an attenuation of the reduction in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise.

Furthermore, all 8 of the players who improved with β-alanine did so above this expected CV, while the placebo group showed more variation with 3 players exceeding the CV 1 improved and 2 decreased their performancewhich suggests that performance improvements in the β-alanine group can be attributed to the nutritional intervention employed in the current investigation.

Since all players were involved in an identical training structure throughout the supplementation period, the further increases in these subjects could be attributed to an increased ability to train due to increased muscle buffering capacity [ 7 ], providing an additive effect over supplementation alone.

Although mid-season scores were not different from the start of the season for First Division Scandinavian footballers, YoYo IR2 performance was decreased at the end of the season compared to the start of the season in another group of First and Second division players [ 13 ].

Furthermore, only 4 out of 15 players improved their YoYo IR2 performance during the season, while a further 9 showed a performance decrement [ 13 ].

In the present investigation, performance for players in the placebo group supplemented from early to mid-season followed a similar pattern to this, and all 3 supplemented from the middle until the end of the season showed a decline in performance.

In contrast, all players supplemented with β-alanine from early- to mid-season improved their YoYo scores, while 2 of the 3 supplemented from mid-season until the end of the season showed a performance improvement, with the remaining player unchanged.

These data provide evidence to suggest that β-alanine supplementation can not only halt the decline in fitness levels shown during a competitive season[ 13 ], but may even improve them above typical levels.

The ingestion of 3. Improvements can be attributed to an increase in muscle buffering capacity due to increased muscle carnosine concentration, attenuating the decline in intramuscular pH during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. Harris RC, Tallon M, Dunnett M, Boobis LH, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis.

Amino Acids. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bate-Smith EC: The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate and carnosine. J Physiol. Article Google Scholar.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD: Effect of beta-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.

Med Sci Sport Exerc. CAS Google Scholar. Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman C: Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women. Eur J Appl Physiol. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Rampinini E, Sassi A, Morelli A, Mazzoni S, Fanchini M, Coutts AJ: Repeated-sprint ability in professional and amateur soccer players.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA: Short duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res. Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST: The effects of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity.

J Strength Cond Res. Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C: Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint performance during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C: Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a review by meta-analysis.

Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bangsbo JL: Fitness training in football — A scientific approach. Google Scholar.

Bangsbo J, Iaia MF, Krustrup P: The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent Sports.

Sports Med. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Nybo L, Jensen JM, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J: The Yo-Yo IR2 Test: Physiological Response, Reliability, and Application to Elite Soccer.

Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nielsen JJ, Nybo L, Rasmussen MK, Juel C, Bangsbo J: Effect of two different intense training regimens on skeletal muscle ion transport proteins and fatigue development.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue.

J Sport Sci. Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training.

Cohen J: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Bishop D, Lawrence S, Spencer M: Predictors of repeated sprint ability in elite female hockey players.

J Sci Med Sport. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, Boeschet C: Effect of two beta alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

Download references.

: Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration

MeSH terms

The recommended dose is 2—5 grams daily. Although excessive amounts may cause tingling in the skin, beta-alanine is considered to be a safe and effective supplement to boost exercise performance.

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By Arlene Semeco, MS, RD on July 5, What It Is Functions Athletics Body Composition Other Benefits Sources Dosage Side Effects In Combination Bottom Line Athletes and those who are active may take beta-alanine supplements to boost performance and strength.

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Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bate-Smith EC: The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate and carnosine. J Physiol. Article Google Scholar. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD: Effect of beta-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Med Sci Sport Exerc. CAS Google Scholar. Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman C: Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women.

Eur J Appl Physiol. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Rampinini E, Sassi A, Morelli A, Mazzoni S, Fanchini M, Coutts AJ: Repeated-sprint ability in professional and amateur soccer players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA: Short duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Nutr Res. Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST: The effects of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. J Strength Cond Res. Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C: Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint performance during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C: Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a review by meta-analysis. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bangsbo JL: Fitness training in football — A scientific approach. Google Scholar.

Bangsbo J, Iaia MF, Krustrup P: The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent Sports. Sports Med. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Nybo L, Jensen JM, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J: The Yo-Yo IR2 Test: Physiological Response, Reliability, and Application to Elite Soccer.

Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nielsen JJ, Nybo L, Rasmussen MK, Juel C, Bangsbo J: Effect of two different intense training regimens on skeletal muscle ion transport proteins and fatigue development.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sport Sci. Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training.

Cohen J: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Bishop D, Lawrence S, Spencer M: Predictors of repeated sprint ability in elite female hockey players. J Sci Med Sport. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, Boeschet C: Effect of two beta alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

Download references. Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement SHAPE Research Group, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Caroline Sunderland. We declare that we received β-alanine and maltodextrin supplies from Natural Alternatives International to undertake this study, though no additional funding was provided.

Roger Harris is an independent paid consultant of Natural Alternatives International, is named as an inventor on patents held by Natural Alternatives International, and is in receipt of other research grants awarded by Natural Alternatives International. BS participated in the design of the study, carried out the data collection, performed the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript.

CS conceived of the study, participated in its design and helped draft the manuscript. RCH helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Saunders, B.

et al. β-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9 , 39 Download citation. Received : 25 May Accepted : 22 August Published : 28 August Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Abstract Background β-alanine supplementation has been shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance and capacity.

Conclusions 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation improved YoYo IR2 performance, likely due to an increased muscle buffering capacity resulting in an attenuation of the reduction in intracellular pH during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

Introduction Carnosine β-alanyl-L-histidine is a naturally occurring dipeptide found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle [ 1 ] and due to its pKa 6. Methods Subjects Seventeen amateur male footballers age 22 ± 4 y, height 1. Study design All subjects had performed the YoYo IR2 on a minimum of two previous occasions, and were aware of the requirements of the protocol.

YoYo intermittent recovery test level 2 All tests were performed indoor on an artificial running track in ambient conditions temperature Statistical analysis All data were analysed using Statistica 9 Statsoft, USA and are presented as mean ± 1SD.

Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Discussion There was a clear effect of 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on the distance covered during the YoYo IR2 test. Conclusions The ingestion of 3. References Harris RC, Tallon M, Dunnett M, Boobis LH, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Bate-Smith EC: The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate and carnosine. Article Google Scholar Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Article Google Scholar Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD: Effect of beta-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. CAS Google Scholar Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman C: Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Rampinini E, Sassi A, Morelli A, Mazzoni S, Fanchini M, Coutts AJ: Repeated-sprint ability in professional and amateur soccer players.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA: Short duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST: The effects of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity.

International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine Figure 1. Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration found Brta-alanine this was more effective than creatine alone. Regsneration customer regenration and Brain training exercises work Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to regeneraation more Diabetic neuropathy in the eyes the product and decide regensration it is the Brain training exercises product for them. Rampinini E, Sassi A, Morelli A, Mazzoni S, Fanchini M, Coutts AJ: Repeated-sprint ability in professional and amateur soccer players. Ghodsi, R. Currently, insufficient data using very high BA protocols on MCarn precludes the answering of this question, but one thing that is clear is that human skeletal muscle has large capacity to uptake BA and to increase MCarn, and that in the absence of intervention, MCarn is maintained at levels far below its maximal capacity.
Beta-Alanine: Uses and Nutrition J Physiol. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun R , on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Strength Cond Res. In the present investigation, performance for players in the placebo group supplemented from early to mid-season followed a similar pattern to this, and all 3 supplemented from the middle until the end of the season showed a decline in performance. The rest took a placebo and served as the control. Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA. Gonzalez AM, Walsh AL, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Hoffman JR.
Beta-Alanine — A Beginner's Guide

The dosing regimen consisted of one mg β-alanine or placebo tablet ingested four times per day at 3 — 4 h intervals. There were no reports of symptoms of paraesthesia from any of the subjects in either group.

All supplements were tested by HFL Sports Science prior to use to ensure no contamination with steroids or stimulants according to ISO accredited tests.

All tests were performed indoor on an artificial running track in ambient conditions temperature Upon arrival, subjects performed a 5 min standardised warm-up, consisting of light jogging and running, followed by 5 min of self-selected stretching. The YoYo IR2 consists of repeated 40 m 2 x 20 m runs between markers set 20 m apart, at progressively increasing speeds dictated by an audio signal [ 11 ].

Subjects perform 10 s of active recovery between each running bout, consisting of a 10 m 2 x 5 m walk. The test was ended if the player failed to reach the finish line within the given time frame on two consecutive occasions or if the player felt unable to continue volitional exhaustion.

The total number of levels was recorded and used to determine total distance covered m during the test. All data were analysed using Statistica 9 Statsoft, USA and are presented as mean ± 1SD. A two factor ANOVA Group x Trial was used to determine any differences in YoYo performance.

Distance covered during the YoYo IR2 for both supplementation groups pre white bars and post black bars supplementation. Individual response to supplementation in the placebo and β-alanine groups pre YoYo 1 and post YoYo 2 supplementation.

Players supplemented from early to mid-season are indicated by a solid line and players supplemented from mid- to the end of the season are indicated by a dotted line.

In the group of players supplemented from early to mid-season, 2 out of 5 in PLA and 6 out of 6 in BA group improved YoYo IR2 performance. Of the remaining players supplemented from mid until the end of season, no one in PLA showed an improvement while 2 out of 3 in BA improved their distance covered.

There was a clear effect of 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on the distance covered during the YoYo IR2 test. This is in contrast to previous research that has shown no effect of β-alanine on repeated sprint exercise [ 7 — 9 ], although these studies used exercise protocols consisting of performance tests incorporating periods of high-intensity and sprint activity of less than 60 s in duration, which are suggested to be unaffected by β-alanine supplementation [ 10 ].

Furthermore, distance covered during the YoYo IR2 has been associated with high-intensity running performed during competitive games play [ 12 , 13 ]. Therefore, the results of the present investigation suggest that β-alanine supplementation is effective at improving team sport specific exercise capacity.

Although muscle carnosine concentrations were not directly determined in this study, Stellingwerff et al. Therefore, it can by hypothesised that 12 weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 3.

As such, since one of the undisputed roles of muscle carnosine is in muscle buffering, the most likely explanation for the improvement in YoYo IR2 performance is due to an increase in intracellular buffering capacity, resulting in an attenuation of the reduction in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise.

Furthermore, all 8 of the players who improved with β-alanine did so above this expected CV, while the placebo group showed more variation with 3 players exceeding the CV 1 improved and 2 decreased their performance , which suggests that performance improvements in the β-alanine group can be attributed to the nutritional intervention employed in the current investigation.

Since all players were involved in an identical training structure throughout the supplementation period, the further increases in these subjects could be attributed to an increased ability to train due to increased muscle buffering capacity [ 7 ], providing an additive effect over supplementation alone.

Although mid-season scores were not different from the start of the season for First Division Scandinavian footballers, YoYo IR2 performance was decreased at the end of the season compared to the start of the season in another group of First and Second division players [ 13 ].

Furthermore, only 4 out of 15 players improved their YoYo IR2 performance during the season, while a further 9 showed a performance decrement [ 13 ].

In the present investigation, performance for players in the placebo group supplemented from early to mid-season followed a similar pattern to this, and all 3 supplemented from the middle until the end of the season showed a decline in performance.

In contrast, all players supplemented with β-alanine from early- to mid-season improved their YoYo scores, while 2 of the 3 supplemented from mid-season until the end of the season showed a performance improvement, with the remaining player unchanged.

These data provide evidence to suggest that β-alanine supplementation can not only halt the decline in fitness levels shown during a competitive season[ 13 ], but may even improve them above typical levels.

The ingestion of 3. Improvements can be attributed to an increase in muscle buffering capacity due to increased muscle carnosine concentration, attenuating the decline in intramuscular pH during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. Harris RC, Tallon M, Dunnett M, Boobis LH, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis.

Amino Acids. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bate-Smith EC: The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate and carnosine. J Physiol. Article Google Scholar. Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA: Influence of β-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity.

Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD: Effect of beta-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Med Sci Sport Exerc. CAS Google Scholar.

Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman C: Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women. Eur J Appl Physiol. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Rampinini E, Sassi A, Morelli A, Mazzoni S, Fanchini M, Coutts AJ: Repeated-sprint ability in professional and amateur soccer players.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Faigenbaum AD, Ross R, Kang J, Stout JR, Wise JA: Short duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players.

Nutr Res. Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST: The effects of β-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. J Strength Cond Res. Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C: Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint performance during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C: Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a review by meta-analysis. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Bangsbo JL: Fitness training in football — A scientific approach. Google Scholar. Bangsbo J, Iaia MF, Krustrup P: The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: A Useful Tool for Evaluation of Physical Performance in Intermittent Sports.

Sports Med. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Nybo L, Jensen JM, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J: The Yo-Yo IR2 Test: Physiological Response, Reliability, and Application to Elite Soccer. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nielsen JJ, Nybo L, Rasmussen MK, Juel C, Bangsbo J: Effect of two different intense training regimens on skeletal muscle ion transport proteins and fatigue development.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sport Sci. Krustrup P, Bangsbo J: Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training.

Cohen J: Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Bishop D, Lawrence S, Spencer M: Predictors of repeated sprint ability in elite female hockey players. J Sci Med Sport. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, Boeschet C: Effect of two beta alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

Download references. Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement SHAPE Research Group, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Caroline Sunderland. We declare that we received β-alanine and maltodextrin supplies from Natural Alternatives International to undertake this study, though no additional funding was provided.

Roger Harris is an independent paid consultant of Natural Alternatives International, is named as an inventor on patents held by Natural Alternatives International, and is in receipt of other research grants awarded by Natural Alternatives International.

BS participated in the design of the study, carried out the data collection, performed the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. CS conceived of the study, participated in its design and helped draft the manuscript. RCH helped to draft the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

Reprints and permissions. Saunders, B. The ramp incremental protocol consisted of 3 min of unloaded baseline pedaling followed by a ramp increase in power output of 30 W. V°O 2peak was determined as the highest s mean value.

The GET was established from the gas exchange data averaged in s time bins using the following criteria: 1 the first disproportionate increase in V°CO 2 vs. The repeated 3-min all-out test began with 3 min of baseline pedaling 20 W , at the same self-selected cadence chosen during the ramp incremental test, followed by two 3-min all-out efforts separated by 1 min of active recovery W cycling.

Subjects were asked to accelerate to — rpm over the final 5 s of the baseline period, and for the final 5 s of the active recovery. To ensure an all-out effort, subjects were instructed and strongly encouraged to attain their peak power output as quickly as possible, and to maintain their cadence as high as possible until instructed to stop.

CP was estimated as the mean power output during the final 30 s of bout 1. End test power EP was determined as the mean 30 s power output during the final 30 s of bout 2.

The V°O 2peak during each bout of the repeated 3-min all-out test was calculated as the highest 15 s rolling mean value. To assess muscle metabolism during exercise, subjects performed single-legged knee-extension exercise in a prone position within a magnetic resonance scanner, as described by Vanhatalo et al.

The INC KEE consisted of 30 s of exercise lifting 1 kg, followed by a 0. Breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange data were collected continuously during all cycling tests, with subjects wearing a nose clip and breathing through a low-dead space, low resistance mouthpiece and impeller turbine assembly Triple V, Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany.

The inspired and expired gas volume and gas concentration signals were sampled continuously at Hz, the latter using paramagnetic O 2 and infrared CO 2 analysers Oxycon Pro, Jaeger via a capillary line connected to the mouthpiece. These analysers were calibrated before each test with gases of known concentration, and the turbine volume transducer was calibrated using a 3-L syringe Hans Rudolph, KS.

The volume and concentration signals were time-aligned, accounting for the transit delay in capillary gas and analyser rise time relative to the volume signal.

The V°O 2 , V°CO 2 and V° E were calculated for each breath using standard formulae. The blood was analyzed for lactate concentration [La] YSI , Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH and 1.

MRS measurements were performed within the bore of a 1. Muscle carnosine content was measured in the vastus medialis VM , vastus lateralis VL , and rectus femoris RF muscles using 1 H-MRS. Subjects were secured to the scanner bed in the supine position via Velcro straps which were fastened across the thigh to minimize movement during the scans.

Following the acquisition of a localiser series, a high-resolution coronal imaging series of the thigh was acquired to allow identification of the lateral and medial condyles Fast spin echo, echo train 19, repetition time of 2, ms, echo time of 13 ms, slice 4 mm, pixel 0.

A location within the center of the thigh was selected from the coronal images relative to the condyles using measurement tools contained within the scanner software. A transverse image was then acquired at this location fast spin echo repetition time of ms, echo time of 15 ms, slice thickness 4 mm, pixel 0.

Single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy was undertaken with a 4-element flexible surface coil 45 cm diameter right-left, 30 cm diameter foot-head with the following parameters: repetition time of 2, ms, echo time of 30 ms, excitations, 1, data points, spectral bandwidth of 1, Hz, and a total acquisition time of 4.

The sequence included a range of preparation phases, including the determination of the water resonance frequency, 90 degree pulse power calibration, shimming and gradient adjustments. For the repeat visits, scout and coronal images were again acquired and the transverse slice position replicated by placing the slice at the same distance from the condyles as for the baseline visit.

Muscle [carnosine] was expressed as a ratio relative to the water peak. To determine the reliability of this assessment, a separate cohort of 6 subjects visited the laboratory on consecutive days for the determination of baseline muscle carnosine content.

Subjects were instructed to arrive at the laboratory well-hydrated and rested, having avoided strenuous exercise for 24 h prior to the assessment. Each scan was performed at the same time of day ±2 h for each individual.

Concentrations of phosphorous-containing muscle metabolites and pH during exercise were determined as previously described Vanhatalo et al. Initially, fast field echo images were acquired to determine the correct positioning of the muscle in relation to the coil.

A number of pre-acquisition steps were performed to optimize the signal from the muscle under investigation, and tuning and matching of the coil were performed to maximize energy transfer between the coil and the muscle.

To ensure that the muscle was consistently at the same distance from the coil at the time of data sampling, the subjects matched their movement i.

Data were acquired every 1. Phase cycling with four phase cycles was employed, leading to a spectrum being acquired every 6 s. Intracellular pH was calculated using the chemical shift of the P i spectra relative to the PCr peak Taylor et al.

Resting and end-exercise values of [PCr], [P i ], and pH were calculated over the last 30 s of the rest or exercise period. Independent samples t -tests were used to assess differences between the groups prior to supplementation.

Analysis of variance ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences in V°O 2peak between the ramp incremental cycling test and bout 1 and 2 of the repeated 3-min all-out cycling test. All significant main and interaction effects were followed up using Fisher's least significant difference post hoc tests.

Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients were used to assess the association between muscle carnosine content and performance. All data are presented as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22 SPSS Inc.

No subject reported any adverse effects of supplementation, and self-report supplementation diaries, which were issued weekly, confirmed adherence to the supplementation regimen. Table 1.

Group mean ± SD baseline physical characteristics and physiological responses to the ramp incremental cycling test, bout 1 of the repeated 3-min all-out cycling test, and whole thigh muscle carnosine content for the placebo PL and β-alanine BA groups.

BA supplementation did not significantly increase muscle carnosine content following 4 weeks of supplementation in the VM Week 0, 0. Weeks 4, 0. Similarly, muscle carnosine content was not significant increased from baseline in the VM 0. No significant differences in muscle carnosine content were observed following 4 and 6 weeks of supplementation Figure 1.

Figure 1. A representative 1 H-MRS spectrum is provided in A. The muscle carnosine content for the placebo white and β-alanine gray groups for the whole quadriceps B , rectus femoris C , vastus lateralis D , and vastus medialis E.

Solid lines indicate individual responses in muscle carnosine content. For clarity, error bars were omitted. No differences were observed in muscle pH between the supplementation groups BA vs. PL , at rest, at T lim , or at any time-point during INC KEE or INT KEE Figure 2.

Figure 2. The placebo PL; white and β-alanine BA; gray group mean muscle pH response during incremental INC KEE A,B and intermittent INT KEE C,D knee-extension exercise pre- circles and post- triangles supplementation.

Error bars represent SD. For clarity, error bars are omitted for all data points except T lim. Table 2. Muscle phosphocreatine [PCr] and inorganic phosphate [P i ] concentrations and pH at T lim during incremental INC KEE and intermittent INT KEE knee extension exercise pre- and post-supplementation for the placebo PL and β-alanine BA groups.

Figure 3. The placebo white and β-alanine gray group mean blood pH A,B and blood lactate [La] C,D , during the pre- circles and post-supplementation triangles ramp incremental test. The group mean power profiles for both bouts of the repeated 3-min all-out test are displayed in Figure 4.

The V°O 2peak values attained during bout 1 Pre: 3. Figure 4. The group mean power profiles during the repeated 3-min all-out test for placebo PL; A and β-alanine BA; B groups pre- circles and post- triangles supplementation. The data are shown every 10s. SD is displayed by negative error bars for the pre-, and positive error bars for the post-supplementation trials.

Table 3. Figure 5. Pre- and post-supplementation data are presented as circles and triangles, respectively. Figure 6. The placebo PL; white and β-alanine BA; gray group mean and individual T lim during incremental INC KEE A,B and intermittent INT KEE C,D knee-extension exercise pre- circles and post- triangles supplementation.

We employed a comprehensive exercise testing regimen, which included whole-body and single-legged exercise modalities and the use of 1 H- and 31 P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine muscle carnosine content and muscle metabolic changes during exercise, respectively, to investigate the influence of BA supplementation on exercise performance.

The principal findings of this study were that BA supplementation did not significantly increase muscle carnosine content or alter intramuscular pH or performance during incremental or intermittent knee-extension exercise, or alter the power-duration relationship during all-out cycling.

Although there was great inter-individual variability in muscle carnosine responses to BA supplementation, no relationships were observed between muscle carnosine content and blood pH or exercise performance. The findings of the current study indicate that muscle carnosine content was not increased following 4 and 6 weeks of BA ingestion 6.

This is in contrast to previous studies that have assessed muscle carnosine content using 1 H-MRS and have shown that BA supplementation results in increased carnosine content in muscles of the calf Baguet et al. Whilst these studies employed a variety of different supplementation strategies, and although baseline muscle carnosine content and loading rates appear to be muscle specific Baguet et al.

In the present study, subjects had ingested a total of g BA after 4 weeks and g BA after 6 weeks. This finding is similar to Hill et al. Whilst a greater baseline carnosine content has been observed in human type II muscle fibers Suzuki et al.

Therefore, individual differences in muscle fiber type composition are unlikely to explain inter-individual variation in muscle carnosine response to BA supplementation. Given that the subjects in the current study were matched at baseline, were not trained in any particular sport, and that there was no association between muscle carnosine increase and parameters of fitness i.

It is possible that reduced L-histidine bioavailability at baseline and as a consequence of BA supplementation may, in part, explain differences in muscle carnosine responses between subjects in the current study and in previous research Harris et al. A novel finding of our study is that 4—6 weeks of BA supplementation may not always result in a measurable increase in muscle carnosine content cf.

Hill et al. The factors regulating muscle carnosine content require further research. The ergogenic effect of BA supplementation has been primarily attributed to its role in the synthesis of muscle carnosine, a potent intramuscular pH buffer Bate-Smith, However, to our knowledge there has only been one study that has previously assessed muscle buffering capacity in humans following BA supplementation and, despite observing an increase in muscle carnosine, found no improvements in muscle buffering capacity Gross et al.

In the current study, we used 31 P-MRS to assess muscle pH during single-legged knee-extension exercise. It was shown that BA supplementation did not result in changes in muscle pH at rest or during INC KEE or INT KEE and no performance improvement was observed.

In addition to INT KEE, we used a repeated 3-min all-out cycling test to determine whether BA supplementation might improve recovery from intense whole-body exercise. In agreement with Saunders et al.

This observation is consistent with there being no significant change in muscle carnosine content and no change in muscle pH or performance during INT KEE following BA supplementation. There was a small but possibly meaningful change in blood pH and performance during the ramp incremental cycling test following BA supplementation, despite no significant change in muscle carnosine content.

The increased blood pH and ramp test performance are in contrast with previous studies that have shown no significant improvements in incremental test performance following BA supplementation Zoeller et al.

The 3-min all-out test has been shown to be sensitive to detect changes in the power-duration relationship following training Vanhatalo et al. Therefore, dietary interventions that may transiently enhance muscle present study; Smith-Ryan et al.

The effects of BA supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance are equivocal meta-analysis see Hobson et al. The discrepancy between findings does not appear consistently linked to differences in supplementation regimes or exercise test protocols. Ducker et al. The repeated performance of short sprint-intervals Sweeney et al.

Although interpretation of the studies reporting no significant improvements following BA supplementation is limited due to the omission of a carnosine assessment Sweeney et al.

It was not possible to assess muscle carnosine content on every laboratory visit due to the large number of tests. It is possible that a temporal lag of 3—4 days between some performance test visits and muscle carnosine scans influenced the accuracy of correlations between muscle carnosine and exercise performance indices.

Previous research has shown, however, that muscle carnosine content is relative stable and has a slow wash-out rate following BA supplementation Stellingwerff et al.

There was no significant difference in muscle carnosine between 4 and 6 weeks of BA supplementation in the present study, although some individual variability was evident Figure 1. It may be speculated that muscle carnosine content was elevated in the majority of the subjects in the BA group at the time of the ramp incremental test but not at the time of the 3-min all-out tests.

This seems unlikely, however, and the randomization of exercise tests would have minimized any consistent order effect. These differences might have contributed to the small performance benefit observed in the ramp test but not the all-out sprint test.

We assessed muscle carnosine in a 1. It should be noted, that all previous studies using 1 H-MRS to assess muscle carnosine content have used a 3. We can therefore be confident that: 1 the technique we used would have been sufficiently sensitive to detect the changes in muscle carnosine that have been reported previously Harris et al.

In keeping with the lack of change observed in muscle carnosine content and thus buffering capacity, we found no differences in muscle pH during INC and INT KEE. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that the supplementation regime did not successfully increase muscle carnosine content and muscle buffering capacity.

Given that adherence to the supplementation regime was confirmed by each subject, it should also be considered that the supplement did not contain the expected dosage of BA. The possible absence of active ingredients in some commercially-available dietary supplements has been noted as a concern previously Maughan, However, given that the supplementation product used in this study had been tested to ensure that it contains the identity and quantity of ingredients indicated on the label NSF Certified for Sport , supplement contamination, and decreased presence or omission of the active ingredient seems unlikely.

Why we did not observe a significant increase in muscle carnosine and thus muscle buffering capacity having used a certified supplement, followed an adequate BA loading strategy, and utilized a sufficiently sensitive method for carnosine detection, is unclear.

A variety of high-intensity exercise tests comprising different work-rate forcing functions and exercise modalities were used to assess possible ergogenic effects of BA supplementation.

Under the conditions of the present study, BA supplementation had a variable and non-significant effect on muscle carnosine content and no influence on intramuscular pH during high-intensity incremental or intermittent knee-extension exercise. The small increase in blood pH during ramp incremental cycle exercise following BA supplementation was associated with a small but significantly greater increase in performance relative to the PL group but this was not sufficient to alter the power-duration relationship.

Our findings indicate that BA supplementation may not always increase muscle carnosine content, and clearly, in such circumstances, no effect on exercise performance would be expected.

This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of University of Exeter Research Ethics Committee with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the University of Exeter Research Ethics Committee.

MB, AJ, and AV were involved in conceptual design, data collection, interpretation of results, and manuscript preparation; PM, JF, and SB were involved in data collection, interpretation of results, and manuscript preparation.

MB, AJ, AV, PM, JF, and SB approved the final version of the manuscript and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The BA supplements for this study were provided gratis by a distributor who wishes to remain anonymous. Jonathan Fulford's salary was supported via an NIHR grant. The authors thank Dr. David Bailey and Dr. Trent Stellingwerff for insightful discussions. Baguet, A. Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. Bate-Smith, E. The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate and carnosine. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

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Blancquaert, L. Effects of histidine and β-alanine supplementation on human muscle carnosine storage. Sports Exerc. Bogdanis, G. Recovery of power output and muscle metabolites following 30 s of maximal sprint cycling in man.

Power output and muscle metabolism during and following recovery from 10 and 20 s of maximal sprint exercise in humans. Acta Physiol. Burnley, M. A 3-min all-out test to determine peak oxygen uptake and the maximal steady state. Chin, E. The contribution of pH-dependent mechanisms to fatigue at different intensities in mammalian single muscle fibres.

Danaher, J. The effect of β-alanine and NaHCO 3 co-ingestion on buffering capacity and exercise performance with high-intensity exercise in healthy males. Debold, E. Effect of low pH on single skeletal muscle myosin mechanics and kinetics. Cell Physiol. del Favero, S.

Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration Beta-alanine and muscle regeneration athlete, Brain training exercises the fitness enthusiast to mkscle professional, is musclr a journey to improve every day—whether Support healthy cholesterol levels slimming pills means amd a new PR, beating regenertion competition, or simply Brain training exercises stronger and more confident. Beta-alanine can fuel the athlete in all of us. As the go-to ingredient for sports nutrition formulations, beta-alanine helps build better muscle, faster. It helps us gain focus, energy, and strength. Combined with histidine, it forms a dipeptide called carnosine. Over time, carnosine buffers the pH decline that causes the onset of muscle fatigue and failure, while building endurance and improving recovery.

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