Category: Diet

Obesity and hypertension

Obesity and hypertension

In the hypertesion of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, obesity-related Pomegranate Skincare per se may not promote renal impairment. Obes Hypertnsion Obesity and hypertension 2 hgpertension — Obesity-related hypertension: Obesitg Obesity and hypertension of pathophysiology, management, hpyertension the role of metabolic surgery. The Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial included a 3-year follow-up evaluation of a behaviorally based, multifactorial lifestyle program compared with usual care in overweight or obese individuals being treated with not more than two antihypertensive drugs. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Merlotti C, Morabito A, Pontiroli AE. Renal and cardiovascular mechanisms of hypertension in obesity.

Obesity and hypertension -

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Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy. Deptartment of Cardiology, S. Luca Hospital, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Gianfranco Parati. Reprints and permissions. Kotsis, V. et al. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res 33 , — Download citation. Received : 03 July Revised : 25 November Accepted : 04 January Published : 05 May Issue Date : May Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature hypertension research review article. Download PDF. Subjects Autonomic nervous system Hypertension Mechanisms of disease Obesity.

Abstract The relationship between obesity and hypertension is well established both in children and adults. Obesity, kidney dysfunction and hypertension: mechanistic links Article 23 April Highlights of mechanisms and treatment of obesity-related hypertension Article 10 January Improving obesity and blood pressure Article 25 October Introduction Obesity is a common disorder that develops from the interaction between the genotype and the environment and involves social, behavioral, cultural, physiological, metabolic and genetic factors.

Figure 1. Full size image. Sympathetic activation in obesity Activation of the sympathetic nervous system SNS , measured with direct or indirect methods, has been considered to have a crucial function in the pathogenesis of hypertension among obese individuals.

Renal mechanisms Impairment of pressure natriuresis The arterial pressure control mechanism of diuresis and natriuresis according to the principle of infinite feedback gain seems to be shifted toward higher BP values in obese patients.

Structural changes in the kidney Among the multiple causes of renal function impairment, relatively recent data have revealed the implication of a large number of factors provoking changes in renal structure, which, in turn, seem to be a predominant cause of gradual nephron loss, having a great impact on the alteration in pressure natriuresis.

Function of hormones Insulin Obesity is a state of impaired glucose tolerance, high levels of circulating insulin and reduced sensitivity to the metabolic actions of insulin.

Endothelial dysfunction and changes in vascular structure There is increasing evidence supporting the significance of vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

Therapeutic approaches for obesity-induced hypertension Current guidelines suggest lifestyle modifications and reduction in body weight for all obese hypertensive patients.

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However, they know less about the effects of obesity on the small blood vessels around the body, including the brain. According to a new study, the abnormal growth of small blood vessels in a particular part of the brain may be partly responsible for causing hypertension in people with obesity.

Both kinds of damage — to the large and the small vessels — are recognized factors in the increased risks of disability and mortality associated with obesity.

Older research in mice and humans revealed that eating a high-calorie diet triggers the growth of small blood vessels in the hypothalamus , which is a part of the brain that regulates appetite and blood pressure. Cristina García-Cáceres and her colleagues at Helmholtz Zentrum München in Germany set out to discover whether blood vessel growth in the hypothalamus contributes to hypertension.

This blood vessel growth coincided with weight gain and raised blood levels of leptin , a hormone produced by fat tissue to help regulate long-term food intake.

In further experiments, the researchers used mice that they genetically engineered to have obesity but no leptin. Despite having obesity, these mice did not show any vascular changes in the hypothalamus.

Therefore, the researchers suggest that leptin is the key player in mediating vascular changes. However, when the scientists injected the mice with leptin, the animals lost weight and sprouted more hypothalamic blood vessels. In further experiments, the researchers showed that star-shaped cells in the hypothalamus called astrocytes mediated this effect.

Astrocytes are support cells that interact with both neurons and blood vessels at the blood-brain barrier. Crucially, VEGF and the overgrowth of blood vessels in this part of the brain appeared to trigger increased blood pressure in obese mice.

The study appears in the journal Cell Metabolism. Previously, researchers have focused on the effect of leptin on nerves in the hypothalamus to explain how obesity causes hypertension.

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